Saturday, August 31, 2019

Cultural Considerations Essay

This paper will examine and assesses the cultural concerns and influences of today’s societies with mixed cultures and the effect on the criminal justices system. The paper will address how the cultural concerns and influences affect justice and security administration and practice. The paper will show some contemporary methods by the police and security used in societies of mixed cultures. The paper will address how these influences and considerations relate to and affect nondiscrimination practices within the criminal justice system. Finally, the paper will address Sir Robert Peel’s nine principles and how they fit into today’s police departments. The military occupation of numerous countries in the Middle East and Europe has brought police practices into question. The local police forces have been trained by the military in which the rules are different. The free people are suffering abuse at the hands of the police in those countries. In those cases where militant law is present and security is more prevalent, the police appear to work more for the current occupying military than for that country’s government or the people. More than 200 cases of torture have either been investigated or court marshaled by the United States in violation of the United Nations anti-torture body in 2006. This increase in torture may be caused by racial, ethnic, and religious differences in the contemporary War on Terrorism (French &Wailes, 2008). The abuse on that scale does not occur within the United States; however, a problem still exists with the assessment of police and security personnel. These practices are scrutinized by the military, governments, security agencies, and local and foreign police. Of course, these practices question discrimination and profiling. Profiling is one of the major concerns here in the United States. Some confusion exits between profiling and racial profiling. A person cannot be profiled by a police officer based on color, sex, religion, or culture. However, a person can be profiled if he or she matches the description of a suspect. The measures currently used to assess officers are objective and may disclose intimate aspects of the person tested. The standard for recognition in the United States is the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA) that was established in 1979. Psychological testing is in place, however; standards are not set by CALEA, and each agency conducts their own testing (French & Wailes, 2008). In 1973, the National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals recommended that every police agency follow a formal selection process that includes a written test of mental ability or aptitude, an oral interview, a psychological examination, and a background investigation. It was believed that introducing greater screening and standardization to the selection process would result in a more qualified police force. International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) developed several guidelines for pre-employment psychological evaluations. These recommendations address such issues as validation of testing instruments, compliance with legislation, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), using qualified psychologists familiar with the relevant research, and content of the written reports (Cochrane, Tett & Vandercreek, 2008). Compliance with such acts as the ADA indicates the implementation of diversity in the testing process. A few of the most common comprehensive personality tests given to police officers during their psychological testing include the following: Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness (NEO) Personality Inventory, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2(MMPI-2), and Inwald Personality Inventory (IPI). Traits from the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised, which was based on the five-factor model of personality, have also shown to be predictive of police performance. The MMPI-2 and the IPI have been shown to be effective in predicting several job criteria for police officers as well (Cochrane, Tett & Vandercreek, 2008). Today’s American policing and justice system is based on English principles and English common law. One such tradition was limited police authority. This gives way to liberties and freedoms and limits governmental authority. Another tradition was the localized police control as opposed to a national, centralized police force as experienced in many other countries. This turned out to be both an advantage and a detriment. The localization resulted in fragmentation and decentralization of law enforcement. The advantage was acquiring little national control (Walker & Katz, 2011, p. 24). Peel believed that prevention of crime could be accomplished without intruding into the lives of citizens so he developed the nine principles of community policing. His first concept was the basic mission of police was to prevent crime and disorder. The prevention of crime makes the job easier of the police. Police presence is deterrence, therefore prevents crime from occurring. This is the basis for today’s community policing concept. The public must also approve of the actions of the police in the performance of their duties. The people must work voluntarily with the police in observance of the laws to maintain public order (History, 2002). The public must comply voluntarily with the laws and work with the police. Most people do what is morally correct; in turn the police also must do what is lawfully correct. The police are directed by the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights to safeguard every citizen’s right from interference from government. These philosophies are still observed today. If a citizen does not approve of the conduct of the police, a complaint is filed. If the public does not agree with a law, they work to make changes. If the public fails to observe the law, there are consequences, such an arrest or a fine. Another concept concerns the use of physical force to gain compliance. The public is cooperative with the police whereas physical force not need be employed. If compliance is not gained and physical force is required, the force will not be so great as to be considered excessive (History, 2002). The Constitution provides rights to the people and protects them from the police in this area. Laws in most states specifically write out what is considered â€Å"force,† when and how it can be used. Last, the police are specifically trained in the application of force through means of various weapons and hand to hand combat. This force is not to be excessive, not to be used as punishment, or in a punitive manner. The force used is that reasonable force to effect and arrest, to protect oneself or another from death or great bodily harm. The police serve both the public and the law, they shall not show impartiality, but to the law. The officers are also members of the public. Any interest the public has would also be interest to the police (History, 2002). In this case, the officer may come from any background may be either sex or any race. The officer must show fairness to members of other groups and not discriminate against those members or members of his or her own group. The officer shall treat everyone as equally as possible. The police are hired to uphold the law, at the same time serve the public. Peel’s theory indicates, when a conflict arises, the service to the law should outweigh the public service. This concept is contradictory to today’s practices. Policing has become â€Å"customer service†-oriented, where the customer is always right. The officers are members of the public, when they are in an off duty capacity, they are afforded the same rights as any other citizen. However, they should govern themselves as an upstanding citizen because they do represent the law. The final concept indicates the effectiveness of policing is the lack of crime and disorder. This concept is known as preventative policing. In today’s society, the crimes are not occurring where there is a high police presence. So, Peel’s principles are still used to some extent. The demographics have changed since his time. People and crimes have evolved. People’s values have changed, whereas they are tolerant of certain crimes. The attitudes toward police have changed. In a location where there is a strong police presence, fewer crimes occur. This is consistent with Peel’s concept. However, if the demographics of the neighborhood are less desirable, the people of the neighborhood indicate the police are prejudiced and do not want the police in the neighborhood. Thus, more crimes occur in this less protected neighborhood. If fewer police are present, the response time for an officer to an incident is longer because there are fewer officers and more calls. The ratio of officers to calls is higher. In these cases discrimination is blamed for the increased of police presence and the lack of it as well. The affected parties assume they are discriminated against because more police are in their areas, where more crime occurs. However, when the police are not present, they blame the police for the increase in crime because the police are not present. In conclusion, most of Sir Robert Peel’s principles can be applied to the organization of a police department today. In fact, many departments in England still work by his principles. Some need to be altered to accommodate today’s society to be more â€Å"customer† friendly. The United States Constitution and Bill of Rights need to be recognized, as well such as the Due Process Clauses to both the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments if his principles are applied.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Absent Character in Susan Glaspell

Susan Clasped Is at her best when she uses the medium of the theatre In order to discuss the politics of gender, the position of women bound by the social and gender conventions in a male dominant society, freedom of speech, woman's identity and the life in woman's rights. The device of one absent character serves more than well to this purpose in one of Scalpel's plays, Trifles. The absent heroine controls the action and raises several important issues along the way.It forces us, the readers, to be engaged more actively and to consider all the clues that the absent heroine had left for us. In this case, the absence of the mall protagonist helps Clasped deal with the personal space of her female characters. This Is where Scalpel's skills as a dramatist come to surface. In her other play, The Inheritors, Clasped uses the same device to raw attention to other issues of equal importance. She focuses on what it means to be an American, how people differently perceive historical events an d for what reasons.In both of these plays, her device of the absent character fully engages the reader and at the same time successfully communicates Scalpel's ideas. Susan Scalpel's Trifles tackles gender roles and the separate spheres in which men and women operate, and exposes oppression and maltreatment of women in the early 20th century America. It also explores sympathy and sisterhood in the light of a complex moral dilemma on approaching the truth. The action of the play revolves around solving the murder.What is interesting about the play, however, is that the key characters, Mr.. And Mrs.. Wright never appear on the stage, which is â€Å"a trademark of Scalpel's plays. † Although Mrs.. Wright is not physically present in the play, her existence is felt and touched upon and will prove to have an important role for the development of the action in the play. Traces of the unfinished work of Mrs.. Wright and all the other details present at the crime scene will help two other women of the play to get an insight into Mrs..Wright's state of mind, which will turn out to be of racial importance for discovering the motive and thus solving the murder. It is by her absence in the play that the women notice all the â€Å"trifles† and that the men â€Å"at the end of the play (†¦ ) know no more than at the beginning. † How is it that we come to know so much about Mrs.. Wright although she is virtually not present in the play? First of all, her personal items help us reflect on her life as well as on the circumstances that led her to kill her husband.Interpreting all the clues that Minnie Foster left around the house, the women come to the conclusion that her marriage prided her of happiness, liveliness and Joy, and transformed her into a completely different woman. We also come to a conclusion that Minnie was not alone, that there were many women who were dealing with the same problems, alone. Moreover, the two women in the play realize t hat they, too, share Mince's destiny. Consequently, the women are faced with a moral dilemma in having to make a decision whether to reveal what they had found out and send Mrs..Wright to prison for the crime she did commit. This is where the idea of the sisterhood comes to life. Among other indications, it is Mince's bird and the cage that help us realize that she was leading a life in captivity. The importance of the bird involves several issues. First of all, it is a clue to solving the murder, because the strangled bird provided a motive for it. Mrs.. Hale concludes that it was Mr.. Wright who strangled the bird because he was irritated by its song.The bird and Minnie stand for beauty and life and the cage stands for Mince's married life, and we do not need Minnie on stage in order to realize that. Her very absence helps the two women to take notice of the bird, perceive its importance to Mrs.. Wright and identify themselves with her. Besides the bird and the cage, Mrs.. Peters and Mrs.. Hale find few other things such as an unfinished quilt which represented her nervous state of mind, and find out that Minnie was a victim of domestic isolation. In this way, the author creates a bond between her female characters.The absence of Minnie serves several other purposes. It portrays the way in which men from the play approach the investigation and the very way they perceive women. Starting from her husband, neither of the men seems to understand Minnie. The three men performing the role of the investigators fail to see the complexity of the situation and the importance of insight into Mince's psychological condition which proves to be important for solving the details of her house since the men don't share her context. The absence of the character of Minnie therefore, demonstrates the injustice and the suffering in separate spheres, and the unjust treatment of women. Moreover, Clasped uses this device in order to show the ability of Mrs.. Peters and Mrs.. Hale t o find out the true story of Minnie Wright's life by obviously displaying Mince's everyday object and ere personal space, in this case, the kitchen. Ben-Xvi touches upon one other important issue which is highlighted by Mince's absent character.Although absent from the stage, the character of Minnie Wright functions not Just as a link that holds the action of the entire play together, but also as a link to the lives of the other two female characters. Linda Ben-Xvi points out: â€Å"Clasped depicts inarticulate power of women to understand the shared experiences of other women unstructured by language, but nevertheless communicated through mutually shared pain. † One of the central themes of the play, the â€Å"shared experience†, enables women to develop and nourish mutual trust and understanding and defines how they struggle together against conventions.It is the voice of Minnie that is echoed through the house and the play that enables women to realize this importan t notion. By introducing the dramatic technique of keeping the protagonist off the stage, Clasped invites the audience on a quest to truth through dialogue and actions of the characters that remain on stage. Moreover, she starts her play after a death, wishing for her audience to experience a new kind of a Journey. Her playInheritors, on the other hand, is one of Scalpel's most original responses to the American identity crisis and the concern by the isolationist and xenophobic policy of President Wilson â€Å"whose anti-immigrant and anti-anarchist laws, the Espionage and Sedition Acts, were devised to protect war-time morale by curbing any political dissent†. In this three-act play set in the American Midwest, Clasped uses the device of the absent character but this time applied to the Native American population in order to express these ideas.Similar to Trifles, absent Native Americans function on overall levels and serve several important purposes. With the two-layered te mporal structure of the play, Clasped explores the construction of an American ethos. By keeping the Native Americans off the stage, Clasped tackles misconceptions that do not only concern women: Native Americans were also victims of injustice and degradation. This attitude is best expressed in Smith's prejudiced misconceptions: â€Å"l guess you believe the saying that the only good Indian is a dead Indian. Smith expresses the attitude of many other white Americans who were ignorant regarding heir own past and who in their oversimplified vision of the war saw the Indians as bad and the white settlers and soldiers as good. Smith is also ignorant because he believes that the American government paid a good compensation to the Indians for their land: GRANDMOTHER: But poor old Blackjack-?what he didn't know was how many white man there was. After the war-?when he was beaten but not conquered in his heart-?they took him east-?Washington, Philadelphia, New York-?and when he saw the whit e man's cities-?it was a different Indian came back.He Just let his heart break without turning a hand. SMITH: But we paid them for their lands. (she looks at him) Paid them something. GRANDMOTHER: Something. For fifteen million acres of and thirty-four dollars and fifty cents, we promised to deliver annually goods to the value of one thousand dollars. Not a fancy price-?even for them days. The portrayal of Black Hawk by Grandma Morton does not concur with the picture Smith had in his mind about the Indians. He does not know that Black Hawk was a prisoner of war displayed throughout the USA in order to entertain the population.In this aspect Clasped is rather daring because, under the government legislation, she loud have been accused of anti-nationalism allegedly displayed in her play. Native Americans never appear on stage, they are alive through the words of the white settlers who knew them, in this case, Grandmother Morton and later her son Sills. Nellie Hernandez-Real believes that the fact that no Native American characters appear on stage corresponds to â€Å"Scalpel's remark that they have been removed from the American landscape. Inline Jove further suggests that the Whites conquered the West and erased the Indians from the American scene and that by adopting the treated of the absent character, the playwright literalism the metaphor: Through Grandmother Moron's affectionate evocation of the Indian Chief and the references to the injustices Indians endured, Clasped presents her spectators another version of their national past and also infers that, in spite of their actual removal and erasure from the American landscape, Native Americans as well as women can regain some visibility through oral tradition.Grandmother's version stems from life, real experience, and not from books or official governmental documents written to arouse the loyalty of the country's inhabitants. †¦ ) By reviving the past, Clasped aims to keep social memory alive in order to preserve the ties that cement the community, the Nation. By restoring the primacy of autobiographical memories over history, Clasped also shows that the past should not be reduced to a series of sterile stereotypes.The complex nature of the past is to be passed on from one generation to the next, cherished as the gift of knowledge which, contrary to the ignorance that breeds intolerance, favors cohabitation, that is living together as a Nation. Through the role of the absent character of Native Americans, Clasped subtly questions the guiding principles underlying the foundation of the United States of America: that all men are created equal, and that they have a right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.Clasped infers that the respect of these principles is essential if people want to live together as a Nation and that the cultural differences of each member of the community should be taken into account. Moreover, Clasped subtly draws a comparative line between the whi tes and the Indians in a time when Darning's theories were used to Justify the inferiority of the Indians. She does this wrought Grandmother Morton who observes that she noticed â€Å"something of the same nature in white folk†, regarding the attitude towards land, which allows Clasped to infer that the Native Americans and the Whites are similar in nature.Although Native Americans are not present on stage, the white people who knew them help us understand their situation better and also enable Clasped to draw some of the talk with her husband about how the Indians and the white men could live together and that sharing the same land is indeed possible. We can conclude that Scalpel's theatrical device of the absent character functions n several levels in Trifles. First of all, the absence of Minnie helps Mrs.. Peters and Mrs.. Hales feel empathy towards her to such an extent that they are willing to hide the evidence from their husbands.On the other hand, they recognize in Min nie their own position in the social system of the time. The absent Minnie found a way out of her oppression by killing her husband and shortly regained her independence. At the same time, she brought to light the dilemmas of women who live in a situation similar to hers. Furthermore, according to Linda Ben-Xvi, Trifles becomes an important vehicle that brings real-life events closer to drama. In her opinion, Clasped even contributed to the shaping of public opinion about a woman being tried.Inheritors, on the other hand, functions similarly but has a different agenda: Theatre is the art that can give flesh to the past. As a collective experience, theatre seems to be one of the most adequate forms of art to rekindle collective memory since it makes the past alive in the present of the audience who are invited to transcend the world of fiction and consider to what extent the issues raised on stage can be related to their social reality. Like the philosopher, the playwright calls upon ere readers and spectators to draw lessons from the past and act in accordance in the present in the name of Justice.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Actions that the MLRO of BCD should take

Introduction A Money Laundering Reporting Officer (MLRO) is an officer within a firm or practice that has been nominated to make disclosures to the National Crime Agency (NCA), formerly the Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA), under the Proceeds of Crimes Act (POCA) 2007 and the Terrorism Act (TA) 2000. It is provided under Regulation 20 of the Money Laundering Regulations 2007 that if an MLRO receives an internal disclosure of suspected money laundering or terrorist financing, they are required to consider the disclosure and decide whether the grounds of suspicion are sufficient enough to pass the disclosure onto NCA (Ellinger et al; 2011: 98). Since the MLRO of BCD Bank has received an internal money laundering suspicion report from Christian, they will be required to consider whether the matter should be passed onto NCA. Given that Radovan Rankovich (RR) is allegedly wanted by the authorities in the Ukraine for criminal actions against the state, and has received a recent transfer of ?15 mil lion from a Corporate Service Provider in Cyprus, it is likely that this would warrant a disclosure to NCA for investigation. In accordance with this, the MLRO will be required to file a Suspicious Activity Report (SAR) with NCA and subsequently liaise with them to deal with this matter accordingly (Ellinger et al; 2011: 97). Part 7 of POCA makes it a requirement for banks to make a disclosure to NCA if they reasonably suspect that a person is involved in money laundering (s. 329). If the MLRO fails to make such a disclosure then he or she may be found criminally liable under this Act for a failure to disclose (s. 331). This is because a person commits an offence under s. 329 if they; acquire, use or have possession of, criminal property. Since a bank would fall within the scope of this section, it is possible that BCD Bank would be subject to criminal proceedings if they failed to take the appropriate action and thus make the relevant disclosures. If the MLRO does not believe that the grounds of suspicion are sufficient to report the matter to NCA, then the MLRO will be required to make further inquiries (International Monetary Fund, 2011: 65). Once the MLRO has made a report to NCA, the report will be ‘protected’ under s. 337 so that nothing in the report shall be taken to breach any restriction on the disclosure of information. Given that BCD Bank may have engaged in money laundering by allowing RR’s transactions to take place, they may have a defence under s. 338 if they make demonstrate that they made the disclosure as soon as possible. Similar provisions also apply under th e TA if the person is also suspected of terrorist financing. As Christian has received a text message stating that RR is wanted by the authorities in the Ukraine for criminal actions against the state, it is likely that the MLRO will also be required to comply with the provisions under the TA for a reasonable suspicion of terrorist financing. An obligation to report under the TA will therefore arise which means that the MLRO will be required to disclose the identity of RR, any information that relates to the matter and the whereabouts of the laundered property. There are two different types of report that may be made by the MLRO, namely protected reports and authorised reports. A protected disclosure is made by a person during the course of their trade, profession or employment. This type of disclosure is generally made by a person who is carrying our professional activities. An authorised disclosure is made by a person who is about to commit a prohibited act or has already committed a prohibited act (Bastable and Yeo, 2011: 108). Since the bank has already dealt with the property that is suspected of being laundered, it is more appropriate for an authorised disclosure to be made. The MLRO will also be required to obtain consent from NCA under ss. 335 and 336 to determine whether Christian can action any further transfers out of RR’s account. This will be done by making a ‘consent report’ to NCA, which will then block any transactions for seven working days. If NCA gives consent to the MLRO, the MLRO will then be able to give consent to Christian to carry out the transactions (Bastable and Yeo, 2011: 108). If NCA refuse consent, however, the proposed transactions will be frozen for a further 31 days, unless consent is granted during that period; R (on the application of UMBS Online Ltd [2007] WL 1292620. The Risks and Issues for the Bank This particular issue regarding RR is likely to be problematic for the BCD Bank as they will want to act in the best interests of their customer, namely RR, so that they remain in business with them whilst at the same time they are required to fulfil certain obligations imposed upon them by law. Because BCD will be required to disclose their suspicions even if RR has not acted in a criminal manner, this will have a damaging effect upon RR’s reputation and as put by Hislop (2009); â€Å"absent bad faith, little more than a â€Å"bad feeling† can trigger a banks disclosure obligations under POCA 2002, with in some cases catastrophic commercial consequences for the customer and a damning of his hitherto â€Å"good name† in the business community.† If the banks suspicions are incorrect, this can be significantly detrimental for RR. As such, the bank will need to be careful that they are striking a balance between the interests of RR with its duties to disclose . In the recent case of SHAH and another v HSBC private bank (UK) Ltd (2009) EWHC 79 (QB) the implications Part 7 has upon the rights of the individual and the banking business was clearly highlighted. Here, it was demonstrated that where a bank makes a SAR in respect of a suspicious transaction, they may not be provided with protection if the customer decides to challenge the banks suspicions in the future. This is so, despite the fact that a criminal offence may have been committed if the bank failed to make such a disclosure. Customers will have a right to challenge the banks suspicions with the bank then being required to prove that the suspicion was reasonable. It may be difficult to determine how the bank can justify making a disclosure since it was made clear by the court in this case that â€Å"the defendant must think that there is a possibility, which is more than fanciful, that the relevant facts exist. A vague feeling of unease would not suffice.† The bank will therefore be taking a risk in many any disclosure, especially this one since it will have to be shown that the text message was sufficient enough for a disclosure to be made. Furthermore, even if the circu mstances do render a disclosure justified, the bank’s decision may still be challenged which can be costly and time consuming. In K Ltd v National Westminster Bank plc [2007] 1 WLR 311 it was noted by the Court that; â€Å"to intervene between a banker and his customer in the performance of the contract of mandate is a serious interference with the free flow of trade. But Parliament has considered that a limited interference is to be tolerated in preference to allowing the undoubted evil of money-laundering to run rife in the commercial community.† Therefore, even though such a disclosure may interfere with the relationship between the bank and RR, such interference will be necessary if it will be likely to prevent money laundering from taking place. The bank needs to be clear that an interference of RR’s account is appropriate on the circumstances, since a frozen bank account for a period of time has in the past been considered a ‘grave injustice’ in the case of Squirrell Limited v National Westminster Bank plc (Customs and Excise Commissioners intervening [2006] 1 WLR 637. Here, the customer’s funds were frozen resulting in the customer being unable to afford the legal fees it would cost to challenge the decision. Therefore, if RR’s funds were frozen, which subsequently prevented RR from challenging the decision; it is unlikely that this would be deemed appropriate by the court. In accordance with this, it has been said that the test for suspicion is â€Å"a purely subjective matter† ( Medroft, 2010: 190). The decision as to whether the suspicion is reasonable will therefore depend upon whether Christian actually believed that the transaction was suspicious. If it cannot be found that this is the case, the interference cannot be considered justifiable and a breach of the customer’s human rights may also be established as in K Ltd. The bank will therefore be required to consider whether ‘reasonable grounds’ do actually exist, having regard to the elements constituting market abuse offences (Hudson and Hutchinson, 2009: 1). There are many inherent risks that are associated with disclosures and as such, it is vital that the bank is aware of its exact rights and obligations. In SHAH the court found that the bank did not act in an unreasonable manner which is likely to be the case in the instant situation. As such, it will most likely be difficult for RR to show that the bank had not acted in good faith. However, it could be argued that there was an unreasonable delay by the bank to make the disclosure under s. 338(2). As a result of this, the bank could be exposed to liability for breach of its duty of care (Medroft, 2010: 190). Whether this is acceptable remains an arguable subject but as expressed by Benjamin (2007: 62); â€Å"here the objective is not informed consent to risk but combating crime.à ¢â‚¬  Accordingly, it is therefore generally accepted that a bank’s interference will be justified on public policy grounds. The bank will still be subjected to many risks when making a disclosure, nonetheless, and must therefore consider whether the consequences of making a disclosure can be justified (Ellinger et al. 2010: 114). In addition, if the bank decides to make a disclosure, they must be careful not to allow the customer to find out as they can be found liable for ‘tipping off. This is another issue that may arise since a customer could become aware that a disclosure has been made simply due to the fact that their account has been suspended. It could be said that the bank is in a difficult situation as whatever option it takes, sanctions may still be imposed. As one judge noted in Governer & Company of the Bank of Scotland v A Ltd [2000] Lloyd’s Rep Bank 271, 287; â€Å"the bank may commit a criminal offence if it pays or if it refuses to pay.† Furthermore, if the bank makes a disclosure based on its suspicions, which later turn out to be unfounded, the bank risks civil liability for breaching its contract with its customer (Ellinger et al: 2010: 114). This is because the bank will have frozen the customer’s account which would have prevented payments from being made in and out of the account. Because the banks have a significant burden imposed upon them when it comes to dealing with money laundering, some attempt has been made to ensure that banks acting in good faith will not face criminal liability. For example, it was held by the court in C v S [1999] 2 All ER 343 that â€Å"it would not normally be an abuse of process to prosecute a bank which was doing no more than obeying a court order for disclosure.† Still, it is necessary for the bank to consider all of the risks before considering whether to make a disclosure or not. Overall, it is necessary on the facts for the MLRO of BCD Bank to make a disclosure to NCA since it does appear that the suspicions are reasonable. This is based upon the transaction of ?15 million that was made recently as well as the text message that Christian has received. Whilst the bank would be required to examine the potential issues with disclosing such information and freezing the account of RR this appears necessary and in the public interest. It will most likely prevent money laundering activities from taking place and will ensure that Christian, the MLRO and the bank are complying with their obligations. References Bastable, G., and Yeo, N., (2011). Money Laundering Law and Regulation: A Practical Guide, Oxford University Press. Benjamin, J., (2007). Financial Law. OUP Oxford. Ellinger, E. P., Lomnicka, E., and Hare, C., (2011) Ellinger’s Modern Banking Law, (Oxford University Press. Ellinger, E. P., Lomnicka, E., and Hare, C., (2010) Ellinger’s Modern Banking Law. 5th Edition. OUP Oxford. Hislop, D., (2009). ‘Banks, SARS & the Customer’ 159 New Law Journal 1099, Issue 7380. International Monetary Fund., (2011) Banking and Insurance, Business & Economics. Medcroft, N., (2010). A Banker’s Liability for Damages Arising from Compliance with PT 7 POCA’ 4 Journal of International Banking and Financial Law 227, Issue 4. Medcroft, N., (2009). Refusing to Execute Payment Instructions Where a Bank Suspects Money Laundering. 4 Journal of International Banking and Financial Law 190, Issue 4. Hudson, D., and Hutchinson, K., (2009). Suspicious Transactions Reports: Reporting Obligations of Financial Institutions in the UK. Complinet, [Accessed 07 June, 2014]. Cases C v S [1999] 2 All ER 343 Governer & Company of the Bank of Scotland v A Ltd [2000] Lloyd’s Rep Bank 271, 287 K Ltd v National Westminster Bank plc [2007] 1 WLR 311 R (on the application of UMBS Online Ltd [2007] WL 1292620 SHAH and another v HSBC private bank (UK) Ltd (2009) EWHC 79 (QB) Squirrell Limited v National Westminster Bank plc (Customs and Excise Commissioners intervening [2006] 1 WLR 637

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

How do nurses in acute mental health ward minimize and manage patient Essay

How do nurses in acute mental health ward minimize and manage patient aggression and violence - Essay Example This should lead up to production of a comprehensive report. Findings: It is the hope of the researcher that the study will reveal the most common management measures and the most effective. The findings should be applicable in acute mental care wards to prevent violence among patients or any forms of aggression. The expected outcome is a reduction in aggression, especially that which is directed toward nurses in these wards and hence improve on their safety. Aggressive behavior in the acute mental health ward is a major concern in under mental healthcare. Turnbull and Patterson (2009) in their work, point out that nurses working in mental healthcare facilities often find themselves falling victim to assault at the ward, with at least one out ten being physically assaulted. The situation is dire. Healthcare providers in this setting are therefore tasked with finding means to manage this violence. Because of this, there has been focus around ways in which nurses in acute mental healthcare wards can minimize and manage patient aggression and violence (Chou, Lui and Mao 2002).This paper seeks to address the management of aggression and violence in mental care ward. There has been increasing attention towards violence in the mental health ward, given the escalation in the population of violent patients. These attacks, Anderson and West (2011) argue, are a reality and concern, much as the victims often think of them as a natural part of their jobs that cannot be avoided. The effects can be devastating. This fact forms the basis for this paper. The PICO model, as discussed by Davies (2011) will be employed in formulation of the research question that underpins the argument of this paper. This model is preferable to the SPICE model since it forms the basis for formulation of questions in studies that have qualitative elements mainly (Krueger, 2003), which is the nature of the study in this case, qualitative.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Project Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words - 2

Project Management - Essay Example The PFI is termed as a more formal approach for PPP adoption. PFI in simplest form is termed as Design Build Finance and Operate (DBFO) system. Procurements of material can be made using different modes in general, but the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) and Public Private Partnership (PPP) stands distinctly apart in that it allows the contribution of private parties as well in public sector projects. This not only helps in having better options for the project manager, but it also provides momentum to the project towards its completion on time. The PFI generally involves long term contracts ranging from 15-30 years with private sector contractors for providing quality services as per the agreement terms. The PPP forum states that1 such an arrangement ‘typically involves the joint ownership of a special purpose vehicle established under company law’. These are in fact the basic minimum conditions that need to be taken into account. Things like financial background, track record, mutual chemistry of the private partner with the public sector organization are the one’s which need to be taken into while finalizing the partnership program Inviting PFI/PPP is not free from potential disadvantages, if there are some problems in the execution process. The contractual obligation in PFI/PPP is meant to safeguard all the parties involved, but at times the cumbersome process and the terms of the contractual agreement works to the disadvantage of potential bidders. In addition the amount of flexibility that is available in purely public sector project is missing in PPP projects. Quite often the pressure of delivering on time takes its toll on the workforce, who finds themselves stretched beyond their limits, but such voices often remain mum because private companies do not encourage the unions within their companies. A prerequisite for such partnerships is to

Critically evaluate the major characteristics of the Chinese style of Essay

Critically evaluate the major characteristics of the Chinese style of management and how it differs from traditional western management styles - Essay Example Most people under the Chinese management styles do receive instructions or duties from the managers though their. In the western part people work like managers since of the two –way communication they use while making decisions. While in China people have to be managed together with the managers due to benevolent father system. The Chinese management style is benevolent father where the parent will have to supervise the children on everything that needs to be done. The parent system of management believes in the discipline and the attention to details and manages the people at a micro level. This means that the benevolent manager spends a lot of time caring for the personal welfare of the employees, incase of conflict the benevolent system will have to solve the conflict in amicable manner. The benevolent system is regarded as part of the job to supervise all the employees in the organization. According to Michael (1996), the Chinese style of management is different from the t raditional western management since the western emulates managers who are resourceful democrat. This means that if one is the manager one will set the vision and strategy for the business but the company will have to empower the subordinate to execute. Western style of management encourages two –way communication with the employees and allows bottom decision making. In terms of working hours, the management style of Chinese is still different from the western traditional style of management. Ilan (2003) states that the economy of China is growing at a breakneck pace and long working hours for the employees is normal in business. The attitude towards time management and work is highly considered in China where an employee will have to work for so many hours and expected output should be high. Life balance is very different in China and the traditional western management style. Western

Monday, August 26, 2019

Edward Burtynsky & Banksy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Edward Burtynsky & Banksy - Essay Example Thus, while Burtynsky tries to instill an artificial sense of beauty and comfort by taking his viewers away from reality, Banksy tries to make people aware about the social issues by portraying realities satirically. This article intends to compare and contrast both the artists. The early years Burtynsky was born in St. Catharines, Ontario. He was brought to the world of photographs by his father when he purchased a darkroom along with camera and instruction manuals. After gaining some knowledge in the field, he started a small business of taking portraits. Later on, he enrolled at the Ryerson Polytechnical Institute for better understanding of photography. Thus, he obtained a BAA in Media Studies Program. It seems that Burtynsky was influenced by a number of other artists. Some of them are Ansel Adams, Edward Weston, Eadweard Muybridge, and Carleton Watkins (Edward Burtynsky: biography). Banksy was born in 1974 and brought up in Bristol. Though he was the son of a photocopier techni cian, he was destined to get training in butchery. However, the genius got himself involved in graffiti as it was the time of aerosol boom. Thus, his work shows similarity to the works of Blek le Rat, and Massive Attack (Brian Sewell Art Directory). Burtynsky concentrated mainly on landscapes which are altered by the advancement of industry; including mines, piles of scrap and quarries. However, the mere fact is that his photographs of industrial wilderness are often more beautiful than the landscapes it altered. Thus, one wonders if he is a fan of industrialization in a world where art and science do not cohabit. As Ballamingie points out, in order to cover the grand beauty of industrial landscapes, he even visited countries like China. On the other hand, Banksy’s works mainly deal with political and social themes. They cover messages including anti-war, anti-capitalism, anti-fascism, anti-imperialism, anti-authoritarianism, anarchism, nihilism, and existentialism. In additi on, he exhibits mastery in exhibiting human conditions like poverty, despair, alienation, greed and hypocrisy. Technique Burtynsky is fond of large format field camera and his photographs are taken on 4x5 sheet film. They are then developed into high-resolution, large-dimension prints of nearly 50x60 inches. The photographs are often taken from higher platforms (â€Å"Artist analysis..†). Banksy is a street artist. So, his weapon was stencils. However, one has to assume that he even used computers to develop images because of the photocopy nature of his some works. According to Banksy, as he was too slow doing graffiti with stencils, he developed some intricate stencils which minimize time. His art work took every form and every place as he only considered efficacy as the prime aim. To illustrate, he painted his Gorilla in a pink mask on the exterior wall of a social club in Eastville. As Danny writes, as Banksy’s graffiti appeared in public places, at times, governmen t officials considered his graffiti as a form of vandalism. Important works Burtynsky’s one photographic series was named ‘Mines’. It was photographed in Bingham Valley, Utah; Sudbury, Ontario; Butte, Montana; Highland Valley, British Columbia and Revelstoke, British Columbia. Another series ‘

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Demonstrate your understanding of the teachers role in engaging Essay

Demonstrate your understanding of the teachers role in engaging children fully and actively in the learning process in each of the core subjects - Essay Example The authors further point out that educational institution have also put in place measures and policies that are aimed at developing the teaching practice effectively(Siegler & Alibali, 2005). In addition, a tutor’s success is measured by their ability to enhance learning of their student psychologically, socially and emotionally. The responsibility of tutors has developed to more than just academic duties. This has enhanced learning activities in institutions as students are exposed to more thanjust skillsin academics. This has increased the productivity of students produced in the society. As much as changes in learning processes have been implemented, there a lot of requirements from teachers that needs to be made. Educationalists have generated strategies and policies required for teachers to put in place. These strategies are aimed at improving teacher performance as well as increase their role in actively and fully involving students in learning processes. This requireme nt has been successful as tutors, institutions and stakeholders have generated more ways and means of making the teaching profession more effective. This paper will analyze the role of tutors in fully and actively involving students in the learning processes. The paper will include requirements and recommendations that are required from teachers to make their role more productive. Apart from learning processes, the paper will highlight other requirements from teacher that makes their role more versatile. Generally, this paper will focus on effective teaching and learning styles, scaffold learning, assessment strategies and the importance of understanding child development in the teaching profession. Learning styles are defined as different ways that people learn and enabled to incorporate learning materials. Apart from learning programs, learning styles are the most appropriate ways that people are able to learn and incorporate information and learning

Saturday, August 24, 2019

In light of initiatives to promote improved regulation at a local Essay

In light of initiatives to promote improved regulation at a local level, critically evaluate the role of food industry self regulation in the future - Essay Example The political parties are actively taking part to propose changes in the UK’s Food Safety Enforcement to protect the consumers and to ensure the compliance of the companies to the effective enforcement system (Jukes, 1993). Although a number of key reforms were made in UK’s food safety regulatory structure in 2002 however, most of these reforms dealt with the changes in the central government arrangement for hygienic and safe food rather than local enforcement. In this report, the self regulation of food industry in the context of its role in future has been discussed. The degree to which an organisation is responsible to manage risks depends on the nature of business. However, in a food industry, the responsibility of the organisation increases because the user of the product manufactured by the food company is at risk. Therefore, the self regulation of food industry is highly encouraged nowadays as compared to other industries. Industry self-regulation is a process that involves an industry – level organisation setting rules and standards with regard to the conduct of firms within the respective industry, (Gunningham and Rees, 1997). In other words, the industry associations or the companies should come up with the policies and minimum standards to avoid risk. In 2002, when the reforms in food safety enforcement of UK were made, the local enforcement remained untouched because it was being considered that state was responsible to ensure the minimum standards and the role of the individual businesses was overlooked. However, nowadays, it is being considered as the responsibility of both the state and the individual companies to determine how the risk can be managed and because of this reason the self regulation of UK food industry has increased. In short, government regulation and self-regulation are not mutually exclusive but rather a part of a continuum or put differently, complementary

Friday, August 23, 2019

Write a 500 word paper which discusses the complexities of Red Chalk Assignment

Write a 500 word paper which discusses the complexities of Red Chalk media and which gives detailed examples of at least one artist (Leonardo Da Vinci) who used this media. Remember to cite references - Assignment Example l paintings, as when Geurcino used this medium fro a study in preparation for the monumental oil painting ‘Erminia Finding the Wounded Tancred’ ( circa 1660), but red chalk was also used to make decorative and quite elaborate landscapes. The writer goes on to state that red chalk became very popular during the Rocco period in France and was utilized This particular technique can be used to exercise great control and precision. It is very easy to use , no mixing of colours, preparation of pigments etc., and gives a rapid result, using simple strokes. That of course does not mean that it does not also require great skill. A famous picture in red chalk is usually referred to as Renaissance man is often credited as being a self -portrait by Leonardo Da Vinci, although it is perhaps a portrait of a relative of his. Scholars are in dispute about this. It dates from 1512 and is held at the Biblioteca Reale in Turin, Italy ( Daily Mail, 2009). It is rarely on public view simply because it is so fragile, because it is subject to foxing, yet at the same time it is often copied and so well known. There has recently been developed a special box, a Climabox, which will, it is believed, preserve the wonderful portrait from further deterioration. Mayhew ( undated ) has spent a great deal of time researching the various materials used by early artists. He describes it as a natural material and easy to cut into sticks right from the earth as it was already very compressed. He states that da Vinci was the first artist to use it. However supplies became depleted by the end of the 17th century and so it dropped from popularity. By 1795 an artificial substitute had been developed by Frenchman Nicholas Conte, but Mayhew states that this ‘crayon’ simply doesn’t have the ‘glow’ of the natural product, and is harder to work with. He quotes Edward Burne-Jones as being in despair as he asks every colour man for the rare original, and saying ‘Now the

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Why College Education Is Important to Me Essay Example for Free

Why College Education Is Important to Me Essay Why College Education is important to me?, Its so important to me because it ONE of the most pompous thing you need in this world today to get somewhere in life, and survive so you can support yourselves, and yours kids. When I see the words â€Å"College Education† First thing pop up in my Mind is my Mother Smile, able to make her proud!, Not to be worried about her little baby-girl taking on this big world By herself. And to able to give her a little peace of mind that â€Å"I can† survive and support myself because I finished my College Education to get a Higher paying job and not Struggle. Another good reason why College Education is so important to me so I can be a Motivation for my younger sibling also nieces and nephew to see me â€Å"FINISHED† College to persuade them to follow in my footsteps to help them in their own lives, and be a inspiration for them, so that one day they realize that its not as hard as some people make it seems, that if you put your mind into it and have faith anything is possible When I Finished High-school I knew that it wasn’t enough!, I knew a high school diploma wasn’t going to get me so far, but a Job in a fast-food restaurant or a sale clerk at a local store, and maybe a Apartment that I have to work two jobs to just pay all my bills and live, that’s not the life I wanted to choose for myself, so when I think about the words â€Å"College Education† I imagine myself working at good paying job with benefits or owning my OWN business, I see myself being a Homeowner and specially when I have kids able to pay for them when they go off to college. I wish kids nowadays in this generation will understand a college education Is very important to achieve your dreams, in order to have better life, because children today need to know with a education you can be ANYTHING in life, they can be the next President of United State Of America if they finished college and have some motivations, so I hope for myself getting my Bachelor Degree in business show my friends and family anybody can or go  back to school to Finished can be successful. A College education can get you so Far in life just with a little motivation from knowing that a better education means a better job, better self-confidence and more motivation to achieve my goals in the job career that I have chosen. I feel achieving a college degree will help me climb up the ladder in the job I choose when I finished getting my Degree, I also feel that going after my dreams and achieving my goals and showing determination will help for my Future kids as they grow up to do the same. The most important things In my life is God, faith, Family, and my education to reach high to complete all my goals. Jim Rohn Quoited: â€Å"Unless you change how you are you will always have what you got.† I really like this quote because it speaks the truth if you don’t change the situation you in now, couple years later down the road you’ll be in the same situation procrastinating. Another Quote from Brian Tracy Quoited â€Å"One of the marks of successful people is they are action oriented. One of the marks of average people is they are talk oriented.† this quote speaks to me, it saying that action speaks, you can talk, or you can prove yourself by your actions, for me my actions is getting a college education, so that I dont have to talk, but let my actions speaks for itself.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Windows 2008 Network Services Essay Example for Free

Windows 2008 Network Services Essay DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. DNS stands for Domain Name Server. What these two concepts do is get a unique identifier known as a (MAC address) from any computer. When the DHCP gets the MAC address from a computer it provides an IP address for that computer allowing it to access the Internet. When the computer accesses the Internet the DNS memorizes IP addresses of websites that a computer users wishes to. The reason DNS does this is because all of the websites have domain names. Domain names are translated to IP addresses. One example is Facebook. is Instead of users trying to memorize this IP Address, it just makes it easier to access Facebook or even all the IP addresses that users visit. DNS makes internet surfing easier just using alphabetic letters for easy access. For two computers it’s not worth setting up a DHCP because when the two computers want to access the Internet, they will be provided the first available IP address. If you have five computers it would be a great idea to setup a DHCP because with setting up a DHCP you could set permissions which monitors what the other computers could access the Internet for, how long they could be logged in using the Internet and their activities. Now, if there were twenty-five computers it would be perfect to have a DHCP because each computer will have its own IP Address and the IP address would never expire. Also, with a DHCP you could get permission in what any users is able to do in their specific accounts between the network computer and you are able to monitor the daily activities of each user.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Trama In Wireless Sensor Networks

Trama In Wireless Sensor Networks Recent advances in wireless sensor networks have led to many new protocols specially designed for different applications where the energy efficiency is the main consideration. The traffic adaptive medium access protocol (TRAMA) is introduced for energy efficient collision free channel access in wireless sensor networks. TRAMA reduces the energy consumption by avoiding the collisions of transmitted data packets and it allows the nodes to switch low power mode whenever they are not in transmitting and receiving mode. This article is explained about TRAMA operation, related applications developed based on TRAMA protocol and its advantages and disadvantages. A wireless sensor network is a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices that use sensors to measure the physical or environmental quantities like temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion at different places. The main purpose of wireless sensor network is to collect the information from target domain and transmit the information back to specific task. Such a network usually consisting of a number of wireless sensor nodes arranges in ad-hog fashion and each node consisting of one or more sensors, low power transceiver, processor and an energy source likely a battery. A significant amount of energy is consumed by the sensor nodes radio that degrades the network lifetime. In order to reduce the energy consumption of these sensor nodes research has been done on the design of low power electronic devices. Because of hardware limitations further energy efficiency can be achieved by designing energy efficient communication protocols. Medium access contro l (MAC) is an important technique that ensures the successful operation of the network by avoiding the collisions and switching the nodes to idle mode which are not participating in the transmission and receptions. The following attributes has to consider while designing a good MAC protocol such as energy efficiency, latency, throughput and fairness. In a wireless sensor network, the communication part consumes most of the energy which is the main optimization goal for making of MAC protocols. The MAC protocols directly controls the communication module and saves the energy. The major sources of energy consumption in wireless sensor networks are collisions, overhearing, control packet overhead and idle listening. Collisions are generated when a transmitted packet is corrupted due to interference and it has to retransmit again. Collisions also increase the latency. Overhearing is that a node takes up the packets which are intended to other nodes. Control packets used in wireless sensor network include ready-to-send (RTS), clear-to-send (CTS) and acknowledgement (ACK). The transmission of these packets leads to energy consumption, therefore a minimum number of control packets should be used to make a data transmission. Idle listening is one of the major sources of energy consumption. A node really does not know when it will be the receiver of a massage from one of its neighbours. So, it must be wake up all the time for incoming message resulting in idle listening and that can consume 50-100% of the power required for receiving. The MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks can be classified broadly into two categories i.e. contention based and scheduled based. The schedule based protocol can avoid collisions, overhearing and idle listening by scheduling the transmission and listen periods under the strict time synchronization requirements. The contention based protocols have relax time synchronization requirements and can easily adjust to the topology changes as some new nodes are joining to the network or some of the nodes are expired after deployment. These are based on carrier sense multiple access technique and have higher costs for message collisions, overhearing and idle listening. There are a considerable number of MAC protocols which are implemented for different applications in WSN. Each protocol works on different techniques and at last all are targeted for energy efficiency. TRAMA is one of the scheduled based distributed TDMA (time division multiple access) based protocol that has been designed for energy efficient collision free channel in WSNs. The remainder of this section is explained in next sections. TRAMA: Traffic adaptive medium access (TRAMA) protocol which aims to achieve the energy efficiency by avoiding the collisions of data packets while receiving and by employing a low power mode for node which are not scheduled in transmission and reception. The usage of low power mode is dynamically determined and adapted according to traffic pattern. TRAMA applies a traffic adaptive distribution election scheme that selects the receivers based on the schedules announced by transmitters. Nodes using TRAMA, exchange their two hop information and the transmission schedules fixing which nodes are the intended receivers of their traffic in chronological order. TRAMA consists of three components which are neighbour protocol(NP), schedule exchange protocol (SEP) which allows to exchange two-hop neighbour information and schedules and adaptive election algorithm (AEA) uses the information of NP,SEP and it selects transmitters and receivers for current time slot and leaving the other nodes in network to switch to the low power mode. TRAMA assumes a single time slotted channel for both data and signalling transmissions. The above figure shows the overall timeslot organization of the protocol. Time is organized as sections of random and scheduled access periods. The author [1] assumes that random access periods as signalling slots and scheduled access slots as transmission slots. NP propagates among neighbouring nodes and gathers the data during random access period using signalling slots; this way two-hop topology information is obtained. Collisions may happen when contention based mechanism is used during random access period. Transmission slots make collision free data exchange possible by schedule propagation. Schedule exchange protocol (SEP) is responsible for maintaining the updated schedules with neighbours periodically. Generally these schedules are holds the traffic based information which is useful for collision free data transmissions. A node announces its schedule before the transmission stage. The length of the transmission slot is fixed based on channel bandwidth and data size. Signalling packets are smaller in size compared to the data packets so the transmission slots are typically longer than signalling slots. ACCESS MODES AND THE NEIGHBOR PROTOCOL: In the sensor networks, often nodes are power drained and some new nodes are may join to the network. To accommodate these dynamic changes in topology, TRAMA alternates between random and scheduled access. TRAMA starts in random access modes where each node transmits the data by selecting a slot randomly. More dynamic networks require more frequent random access periods and it is opposite to static networks. During these random access periods, all the nodes must be in transmit or receive mode. NP gathers the neighbourhood information by exchanging signalling packets during the random access periods. The above figure 2(a) shows the format of the header of a signalling packet. If there is no up dated information, the signalling packets will sendkeep-alive beacons to its neighbours. A node times out its neighbours, if it does not hear from that node for a certain period of time. By the end of random access period all the nodes will have the information about its two hop neighbours with 0.99 probabilities. SCHEDULE EXCHANGE PROTOCOL: The name itself tells that SEP maintains the traffic based schedules across the neighbours and it periodically updates the schedules. A node has responsible to announce its schedule using SEP before starting the actual transmission. Schedule generation process as follows that each node computes SCHEDULE_INTERVALL based on the packets are generated by the higher layers. The SCHEDULE_INTERVALL of a node represents the number of transmission slots for which the node announce to its schedule to its neighbours according to its current state of MAC layer queue. The node then pre-computes its number of slots in the interval for which it selects the highest priority among its two hop neighbours which we called as winning slots. These winning slots are selected as transmitter and as well node announces these slots to intended receivers. If the node does not have data to send in its slots then it gives up the corresponding slots to other nodes who want to use these vacant slots. A node lost wi nning slot is this interval is reserved for broadcasting the schedule in next interval. Nodes announce their schedule through schedule packets. In these criteria there is no need of receiver address which has obtained through NP. Nodes convey the information to intended receiver using a bitmap whose length is equal to the number of one hop neighbours. Each bit in the bitmap corresponds to one of the receiver order by their identities. An advantage of using these bitmaps is simple with broadcast and multicast communication can be supported. To broadcast a packet to all its neighbours then all the bitmap bits are set to one. If the packet need to multicast with the neighbouring nodes then only that bits are set in the bitmap. For vacant slots the node announces zero bitmap. The slots which are mapped as zero can be used by other nodes in the two-hop neighbourhood. The format of scheduled packet is shown below. In that format the last winning slot in the bitmap is always reserved for announcing the next scheduling. Additionally, the data packets can carry the summary information of a node schedule to its neighbours. These schedule summaries help to minimize the effects of packet loss. As shown in the figure 2(b) the data packets contain the three blocks of summary information of scheduled data in that bitmap corresponds to the number of winning slots in the current interval. The size of the bitmap is number slots and is used to indicate whether it in transmit mode or giving up the corresponding slot. Nodes will maintain synchronization with their one hop neighbours by this schedule information. The slot after which all the winning slots go unused is called change over slot. All nodes have to listen during the change over slot to synchronize their schedules. ADAPTIVE ELECTION ALGORITHEM(AEA): A node is selected to transmit when it has the highest priority among its contending set. At any given timeslot T, the state of a given node U is determined by Us two-hop neighbourhood information and the schedules announced by Us one-hop neighbours. The node can be in three states at given timeslot T, that are transmit, receive and sleep. (i) If a node U at T in transmits, then it has the highest priority and it has the data to send then the slot is used for transmission. (ii) If a node U in receive mode, when it is the receiver of the node which is in transmit mode in the current slot. (iii) Otherwise it will go to sleep mode. Whenever a node has absolute winner for a particular slot and it has non zero bitmap for this slot, it knows that no other node in its two hop neighbourhood will be transmission in this slot. Then collision free transmission is happened to intended receivers. When a node is not absolute winner, then it is not sure who the actual transmitter for a particular slot is. For example, consider a topology in figure (4), it shows that node D is the highest priority in Bs two-hop neighbourhood. In a given time slot and node A is the highest priority in its two-hop neighbours. So, both the AD transmit in the timeslot because they are absolute winners. The absolute winner to node B is node D. The node B is looks at it schedule for D and finds that B is not intended receiver of D, then it goes to sleep mode by missing the As transmission. So, before going to sleep mode a node must also account for the alternate winner. This inconsistency will occur when the alternate winner is hidden from the ab solute winner i.e. they are three hops away. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES: Higher percentage of sleep schedules and collision free transmissions are achieved compared to CSMA based protocols. TRAMA performance can get adapted dynamically to the network traffic conditions and adapts the topology changes throughout the network. Moreover, without considering the transmission and reception, the duty cycle is at least 12.5%; the percentage is excessive for the kind of networks. The latency of TRAMA is more when compared with other contention based protocols such as S-MAC and IEEE 802.11. The delay performance is obtained by analytical mode which notes that TRAMA has higher delay when compared with NAMA. TRAMA protocol is suitable for applications like not delay sensitive but require high energy efficiency and throughput. A typical example is sensor network used for periodic data collection and monitoring applications. CONCLUSION: TRAMA is energy- aware channel access protocol for wireless sensor networks. TRAMA uses the traffic based schedules and avoids the wasting slots and switch the nodes to low power mode when there is no data to send and they are intended receivers of traffic. Through extensive simulations, TRAMA shows significant energy savings i.e. nodes can sleep 87% of its time when compared with scheduled and contention based MAC protocols depending on the offered load. TRAMA also have higher throughputs around 40% over S-MAC and CSMA and 20% over 802.11. It avoids the collisions due to hidden terminals. TRAMA protocol is more suitable for applications like with not delay sensitive and produce high energy efficiency.

Colonialism and Morality in The Moonstone and The Man Who Would Be King

Colonialism and Morality in The Moonstone and The Man Who Would Be King Let us presuppose to begin with that the cursed jewel is an impossibility and the powers of the Moonstone or any other gem for that matter only exist on an atomic level ( i.e. the energies which bind such objects together and make them what they are). Additionally it should be considered that no such object is the means by which a being exerts powers and no such object consciously exerts powers itself. Notions of the cursed or powerful jewel can be seen as a bi-product of what Said terms â€Å"Orientalism.† Said describes â€Å"The Orient† as â€Å"almost a European invention,† a place of â€Å"exotic beings and remarkable experiences.† (Ashcroft et al ed. p.87) This hypothesis adequately compliments Wilkie Collins’ characterisation of the eponymous jewel in The Moonstone and the moral pattern the author forms around its adventures. In the Nineteenth Century the jewel was the ultimate exotic object, Collins describes the Moonstone as â€Å"a yellow diamond- a famous gem in the native annals of India,† (Collins p.33) and clearly credits influence to the Koh-i-Noor in his preface to the novel. Collins builds upon the alien nature of such an object utilising the perceived mysticism of the Orient linking the jewel to a â€Å"four handed Indian God† (Collins p.33) [Said’s â€Å"exotic being† ?] and superstition, the notion of the jewel â€Å"feeling the influence of the deity who adorned it† (Collins p.33) [â€Å"remarkable experiences† to Said?]. Collins rapidly develops the exotic object into the cursed object primarily to create a long involving tale with a successfully satisfying denouement. the novel is, of course foremost a detective story; how memorable or lengthy a tale would it have been if the... ...---------------------------------------------- Controlling of persons. Tolerated Peachy Carnahan (book). (Pseudo-looting in Imperialism. name of the crown?) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Innocent appreciation Good Imperialism. Franklin Blake, Rachel Verrinder, Mr of native culture. Murthwaite, Narrator of The Man Who Would Be King (Kipling?) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bibliography Collins, Wilkie The Moonstone London: Penguin 1966 Kipling, Rudyard The Man Who Would Be King and Other Stories London: Granada 1975 The Post-Colonial Studies Reader e. Ashcroft, Griffith, Tiffin, London: Routledge 1995 The Man Who Would Be King dir. John Huston 1975

Monday, August 19, 2019

Cigarette Smoking Essay -- Argumentative Persuasive Example Essays

Cigarette Smoking The effects of cigarette smoking can be horrifying. Smoking is dangerous not only to those who smoke, but to non-smokers and unborn children as well. Cigarette smoking is also physically and socially harming.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The large particles in cigarette smoke, commonly known as â€Å"tar†, collect in the branching points of the lungs. The tar contains carcinogenic compounds that increase the risk of lung cancer. The small particles in cigarette smoke, including carcinogens, irritants, and corrosive chemicals, collect in the small air sacs in the lungs and damage them. These air sacs are where the blood absorbs oxygen from the air. When the small particles from the cigarette smoke are absorbed into the blood stream and transported to other parts of the body, they include a variety of diseases.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The smoke from a burning cigarette is a mixture of hot gasses and different sized particles that fills the air with over 4000 chemicals, including 43 carcinogens and over 400 other toxins (Glantz & Daynard, 1991). One of the gasses emitted by cigarette is carbon monoxide, a colorless and orderless poison. By attaching to hemoglobin, the carbon monoxide lessens the blood’s ability to carry oxygen. There are many effects of cigarette smoking on the actual smoker. They include lung cancer and other cancers, cardiovascular malfunctions, strokes, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. Cigarette smoking may even lead to changes in the smoker’s appearance such as early wrinkling and yellowing of their teeth. Heart disease and cardiovascular malfunctions are also major effects of cigarette smoking. A chemical in cigarette smoke called glycoprotein attaches to smooth muscle cells inside arteries, causing the interior of these cells to grow. The hollow space inside the artery narrows, which could cause a blockage of the blood flow to the heart and may lead to heart pains or possibly a heart attack. Lung cancer is responsible for 117,000 American deaths per year according to the American Cancer Society (1992). It is the cause of 25% of all cancer deaths and 5% of all deaths (Schaadt, 1992). Most carcinogens are the actual particles in cigarette smoke that may cause lung cancer. The particles include tar, metals (nickel and cadmium), and other chemicals such as benzophyrene and dibenzanthracene. The lung airwaves are c... ...f their stress, it is actually causing harmful effects from them and others. Cigarette smoking causes many types of cancers including lung cancer. Strokes, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema also arise from cigarette smoking. Non-smokers suffer from many of the same cancers and diseases, and often more such as coughing, wheezing, irrated eyes and throat, and asthma. Children living with smokers become passive smokers causing decreases in weight and height. There are many dangers as a result of cigarette smoking not only to smokers, but to non-smokers as well. Bibliography Bowman, L. (1995, August). New Research: Chew, Don’t Smoke, If you need nicotine. Scripps Howard News Service (Online). Gano, L. (1989). Smoking. San Dfiego, CA: Lucent Books Inc. Glantz, S.A & Daynard, R.A (1991, June). Safeguarding the workplace: Health Hazards of Secondhand Smoke. Trial (Online). Monroe, J. (1995). Nicotine. Springfield, N.J: Enslow Publishers Inc. Pietrusza, D. (1997). Smoking. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books Inc. Schaadt, R.G (1992). Tobacco and Health. Guilford, CT: The Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Industrial Revolution :: essays research papers

THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. The Industrial Revolution is the name given to the movement in which machines changed people's way of life as well as their methods of manufacture. About the time of the American Revolution, English People began to use machines to make cloth and steam engines to run the machines. Sometime later they invented locomotives. Productivity began a steep climb. By 1850 most Englishmen were laboring in industrial towns and Great Britain had become the workshop of the world. From Britain the Industrial Revolution spread gradually throughout Europe and to the United States. The most important of the changes that the Industrial Revolution brought were: 1. The invention of machines to do the work of hand tools. 2. The use of steam, and later of other kinds of power, in place of the muscles. 3. The adoption of the factory system. The Industrial Revolution came gradually. However, when measured against the centuries people had worked entirely by hand, it happened in a short span of time. Until the inventions of the flying shuttle in 1733 and the spinning jenny in 1764, the making of yarn and the weaving of cloth had been much the same for thousands of years. By 1800 a host of new and faster processes were in use in both manufacture and transportation. Several systems of making goods had grown up by the time of the Industrial Revolution. In country districts families produced most of the supplies that they used, while in the cities merchandise was made in shops, and manufacturing was strictly regulated by the guilds and by the government. The goods made in these shops were limited and costly. The merchants needed cheaper items, as well as larger quantities, for their growing trade. They had to establish another system of producing goods. The cottage or domestic industry filled in the gap for some time, because it gave the merchant a large supply of manufactured articles at a low price. It provided employment for every member of a craft worker's family and gave jobs to skilled workers who had no capital to start businesses for themselves. A few merchants who had enough capital had gone a step further. They brought workers together under one roof and supplied machines. These establishments were factories. After centuries of the craft guilds and the government having controlled commerce and industry, began the belief that it was better to let business be regulated by the free play of supply and demand rather than by laws The English government started to leave business free to adopt the new inventions and the methods of production which were best suited to them.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Egt Task

Although the current Managers are fluent in Korean, it will be important to hire local dialect persons to add to our staff. This will ensure acceptance, communications, and also preventing miss spoken words that me be taken as offensive If not done with the proper tone. Curriculum Instructor certification. Since South Korea converted the KIT- Korea Teakwood Escalation In 1954 Into the World Teakwood Federation, the feeling In Korea Is all Black Belts must hold certificates from the WTFO.This may be Just a financial ploy to collect money room those outside Korea, but the perception exists that if you hold a certificate (called a Okinawa Certificate) you are then legitimate regardless of what country you received the certificate, since all Okinawa certificates originate in Seoul, South Korea. All staff who do not currently hold their given Black Belt rank must be certified by the WTFO prior to submitting an application to be an instructor in our Korea Dugong expansion plans. Since no O kinawa officers exist in the united States, all certifications will be done by Head Master Ken Adulated, 6th Degree Black Belt Okinawa holder.Country of Origin of retail goods. Three primary countries manufacture martial arts apparel (uniforms) and sparring gear. These are Japan, China, and South Korea. While Americans are primarily obsessed by price, and seem to disregard country of orally pride, Korea Is the opposite. It will be critical that all uniforms, belts, and sparring gear ONLY come from South Korea manufacturing companies. To offer anything else is potentially offensive, but should these goods come from China or Japan, it would also be a disgrace since both countries attacked Korea in the last century. B. ProductThe product of Americas Best Teakwood is martial arts lessons. In America, most adults will not allow themselves to stick with a program, and many areas of the program we currently offer need to accommodate the lack of focus for Adult students, and their ability t o Justify quitting. Only 1 of 10 Americans (compared to 1 out of 4 Europeans) has attempted to learn martial arts. Of those 33 million, only 10% stay with It beyond 30 days, leaving 3. 3 million. Of those 3. 3 million only 10% will stay with It another 3-6 months quitting Jest as they prepare to test out of novice level.Of the enameling 330,000 who achieve Green belt/beginner Intermediate, only 10% of those will reach beginner advanced, or Brown Belt. We are left with just 33,000 Brown belts, In the USA, all but 10% quit after Just 30 days at Black belt, higher than any other country in the world. About 330 people are left who continue actual Black belt training, only 10% of those achieve Master level in the USA, Just 33 out of 330 million. Moving into Korea, we must modify our program for the long term goals of students.Parents will require their children attend, and they will attend with them, it will be a Emily event, training multiple days per week for 6-10 years or more. It wil l be important to modify our tuition timeline to not appear to be short sighted Americas with no ling term vision, or they may feel we are looking for short term profit, or will not stay through difficult times. The good news is that Korea has been losing the Gold Medals at the Olympics to other countries and is accepting of Americas teaching teakwood and they have fond respect for the Lopez family of Houston Texas, multiple Gold Medal winners.We will leverage our affiliation with the Amateur Athletic Union with Coach Lopez. We will use this for credibility but not for promoting an American Agency. 82. Price: Tuition pricing in America is structured around making it easy to quit, monthly pricing is not as important as not needing to make any commitment. In Korea it will be the opposite. Students will not mind signing non cancel agreements paid in full for 6 years as long as the rates are fair. For Korea the pricing will be a base of $900. 00 per year, for 4 classes per week, 2 hours per class, we expect class sizes to be 50-150 per class.In America our current pricing is $200. 0 per month, month to month, 2 classes per week, 50 minutes per class. Koreans will look at price per hour over the long term, wanting the most hours per week at the lowest rate with a long term commitment; Americas want to know how cheaply they can Join, and how easily they can quit, more like leasing a car. 83 Promotion: In America martial arts lessons are promoted in a disposable product manner, viewed like a 6 pack of Coke. Coupon driven society demands a call to action for a discount.Teachers are held in higher regards in Korea and it would be a disgrace to offer discounts, promotions, or marketing fluff. The Koreans will want endorsements from martial arts organizations and to see community service done by the staff. When they see us in public, they will approach us, but the Koreans will be completely turned off if the go to corner market and see â€Å"one month of lessons and a f ree uniform for 19. 99†³Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Word of mouth and grassroots promotion only in Korea. BE Place: 52 million people actively practice Tea Swoon Do globally; it is the most popular martial art.Korea in the past has not been accepting of foreign companies opening Dugongs in Korea, but the loss of first place in the last 3 Olympics has changed this. The OIC, International Olympic Committee has removed Baseball, Hockey, and Wrestling as of late. Talk is they will remove Karate, Judo, or Tea Swoon DO. Koreans national sport is Tea Swoon Do, and they are promising more support and resources. They will do whatever it takes to keep this Olympic Sport status. Allowing Americas Best, a proven Junior Olympic Gold Medal winning organization into Korea and supporting its grassroots movement is a given.C Ethical Issues: to us from Korea. The Koreans have warned us that Americans are viewed as fat, lazy, and abrasive. The example proven to us is Korean infant adoption, only for America do the y have a height and weight scale/range for adopting parents from America. 2) Where the money goes†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Alt has also been brought to our attention from the WTFO that Koreans will need to see a direct line for their tuition to returning to the community. Unlike Americans who will buy a Toyota or Honda and not inquire where the money goes, the Koreans will need to see proof that some of it stays in the community. Sources: None.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Nursing Accountability in Relationship Essay

In this paper, I will review and implement recommendations based on the findings of the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ) regarding the training of hospital staff to respond to a mass casualty incident (MCI). I will give examples and situations that can affect the effectiveness of proper training and responses to a traumatic event in our city, county, state, or country. For years, hospitals have contemplated the possibility of a mass casualty incident (MCI). Federal agencies planning and responding to these events have determined that it would be overwhelming and catastrophic to any community. The resources would not be sufficient to absorb the needs and requirements for help. These events can be naturally occurring or manmade, for example, hurricane season and tornado season in Texas can be predicted with accuracy. In the West coast, we have constant planning and preparation for the next big earthquake even though we do not know with accuracy when it would be. During hurricane Katrina, we had an excellent opportunity to witness how prepared a city is, and how hospitals can easily be overwhelmed by a massive influx of patients. Examples can be given worldwide, but for the purpose of simplicity we will not elaborate further. Never before have we experienced more threats than in the past few years starting from the Oklahoma City bombing and the 911 attacks as the most horrific examples to site. More and more we have seen our fears become our realities and our vulnerabilities, and this is what has made us rethink our strategies and training for proper response to chemical, radiological, or biological threats. Findings The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) requires that hospitals implement and test proper hospital response training twice a year. My hospital, BAMC, a military hospital, has complied with the training and has made significant contributions to the evolution and preparedness in response to a potential or actual event. The military has always been an integral part in training and preparation in regards to logistics and coordination of available resources, but even the best trained or better equipped hospitals cannot compensate for the impact it has on its employees, particularly nurses. Nurses take part and are an important aspect of training and preparation, and they are essential in the response to a crisis or trauma. Working in the emergency department, I often question myself as to how is it that we can train and prepare every year for a mass casualty incident (MCI) when I can see how easily we get overrun and in total disarray. Our hospital is currently capable of taking up to four major traumas all at the same time, but the reality is that even under the best staffed days we get overwhelmed, resourcing quickly to diversion of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) to other hospitals when we have reached maximum capacity. If training then is to prepare us and allow us to be well equipped with the necessary knowledge to perform, why is it that we struggle under small real life case scenarios? The response has to be once again in the level of preparation that each individual nurse takes to be ready to be able to function under very stressful environment. The nurse can be well prepared for future events by performing after action reviews (AAR), which is primordial in determining the stressors and the potential solutions to the problems encountered after each event. Disaster drills are beneficial in the effectiveness of command and control, communication, triage, patient flow, security response, and the roles each practitioner must perform. Recommendations Hospital drills and disaster planning are key and instrumental to make the nurse familiar with his/ her role, as well as the role of all the providers of care and first responders. Proper coordination and adequate allocation of resources are essential. The nurse can be instrumental in his/her flexibility and ability to adapt to different roles under extremely chaotic circumstances. Also, nurses are important for the delegation of tasks and coordination of duties to be taken to stabilize the emergency department for the proper movement of patients arriving and departing. The nurse plays an integral role in the transporting of patient, triage, and treatment of the injured. Properly identifying those who are very critical (expectant, life threatening), and those who are stable and can still function (broken bones, laceration, psychological issues) allows the provider to render the proper and efficient care. The nurse needs to have clear communication with the rest of the staff at every level of the disaster event in order to function and coordinate efficiently. Good documentation needs to be implemented. Nurses need to remain creative in finding ways to document what has been done to a patient with regards of his or her care. In a war zone, we can document key components of patient treatment on the uniforms of soldiers, and the same can be done with civilian population in the absence of computers or charting for short periods of time. Another important aspect is the transport of first aid equipment and supplies as soon as the disaster is identified, including body bags, stretchers, wheelchairs, crutches, splints, IV solutions, blood products, antibiotics, and plenty of analgesics and narcotics. Keeping an adequate number of chaplains, counselors, and security is imperative for the emergency department to maintain order under the chaos and stress. Summary In conclusion, the registered nurse needs to be ever vigilant of the realities of our current situations of the world. Today, more than ever with ongoing climate changes and unpredictable massive storms, tornados, earthquakes, and the impending threats created by man, we are always at risk for an (MCI). Keeping a good understanding of the preparation and the steps to take, and knowing his or her role the nurse can be reassured that he/she will be ready for the unpredictable and often unthinkable. References Training of Hospital Staff to Respond to a Mass Casualty Incident Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 95 Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); July 2004 http://angel03. gcu. edu/section/default. asp? id=705202 Mass Casualty Incident (MCI) St. John West Shore Hospital, MCI Overview http://www. emsconedonline. com/pdfs/EMT-Mass%20Casualty%20Incident-an%20overview-Trauma. pdf

Thursday, August 15, 2019

The Telephone

The Telephone â€Å"Before the telephone came to Magdaluna, Im Kaleem’s house was bustling at just about any time of day, especially at night, when its windows were brightly lit with three large oil lamps, and the loud voices of the men talking, laughing, and arguing could be heard in the street below—a reassuring, homey sound† Anwar F. Accawi (p. 46). It’s hard to imagine that a single device such as the telephone, albeit a breakthrough in technology, could change not only a person’s day to day life, but an entire village.These men in the village experienced all of the luxuries the village had to offer at no cost, Im Kaleem provided the men with a place to gather for conversation, games, drinks and sexual services. The children used to hang around Ima Kaleem’s courtyard playing games waiting for a call down from some of the men requesting errands in exchange for money.But that all changed once the telephone was installed, most of the men wou ld now sit at Abu Raja’s store, â€Å"they were always looking up from their games and drinks and talk to glance at the phone in the corner, as if expecting it to ring any minute and bring news that would change their lives and deliver them from their aimless existence†. (p. 46) Exposure to the telephone not only affected the men in the village, but it also affected the women, children and their entire way of life.I get very excited to hear about, read about or experience new technology, and I grew up surrounded by a constant emergence of technology, from pagers and cell phones to the home pc. I remember when we bought our first computer, they were just becoming a common household device, my dad came home from the store and asked me to hold the door open while he trucked in these huge boxes, I had never seen my dad so excited about struggling and sweating while moving things in the house.I had no idea what was in those boxes, but I became curious and excited as my dad opened the boxes and removed all the packaging, taking everything out piece by piece. Watching my dad fumble around with the instructions and all the wires in anticipation of something big happening made me super excited and I had no idea what this even was. â€Å"You can do almost anything you can imagine with this thing† he said to me in a very animated voice. To me it just looked like a television sitting on a desk, I started to become bored of watching this spaghetti of wires get connected one at a time at a very agonizing pace.My dad was determined and after what seemed like hours of running back and forth between the wires and the instructions, he looked over at me with a huge smile on his face as he powered the computer on. â€Å"I’m finished† he exclaimed, â€Å"now let’s see with this thing can do† he said. He wasn’t kidding, this was amazing, you could send electronic mail that could be opened by the other person instantly, you cou ld listen to music, instant message, play games with someone from another country, it seemed that there was nothing this device could not do. It was limitless with opportunity and could take you anywhere your imagination would allow.So I am not surprised that when this tiny village, that did not have the simple things in life such as a calendars, clocks or even running water, were so influenced by the arrival of the telephone. This gave the people new hopes and dreams, it gave them an opportunity to experience new things and find out what the outside world was doing and could offer. â€Å"Within a year, only the sick, the old, and the maimed were left in the village. Magdaluna became a skeleton of its former self, desolate and forsaken, like the tombs, a place to get away from†. Anwar F. Accawi(p. 7) The calls eventually came in as expected and people started leaving the village for new opportunities, some went into the army while others went to explore new jobs. All of them left looking for a better life than the one they had in the village. With new technology comes new opportunity, I’m not saying that newer is always better, but it can open you up to things you never thought possible. It can provide you with choices that you never had before. I believe in the end Accawi was happy with the way his life turned out but reminisced of how he loved his life as a young boy in the village.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Overpopulation: Population Growth and Birth Rate

Although most of us live a prosperous life with no worries, there are several issues that we are currently facing that will eventually be more and more clear as time goes on. One of these problems is most damaging, in my opinion, to our way of life if we do nothing about it. The issues I am speaking of is the problem of overpopulation. This is a developing crisis and it has plagued most of the world. An area is considered overpopulated if â€Å"its population can't be maintained without rapidly depleting nonrenewable resources and without destroying the environment which supports the population.†(Brown,Gardner,Halweil, Beyond Malthus,19).The problems that arise due to overpopulation could lead to a fatal epidemic that could wipe out the whole human race. So the question remains: Are we facing overpopulation here in the Middle East? And how do we tackle such problems? The answer to this question is a short simple â€Å"Yes† but the solution to this problem is much longer than a one word answer. As such, overpopulation is existent here in the Middle East and countries should identify, analyze and control it immediately.Although I do believe we are facing the crisis of over population, one might ask what exactly can be defined as overpopulation. Through common sense, overpopulation occurs when the number of people living in a certain region, who depend on resources for survival, is significantly bigger than the amount of resources available to them. This as a result, can lead to people living poorer and unhealthier lives compared to others. Currently the world is increasing by 80 million people per year (Stefoff 16). â€Å"Population is determined by the interplay of two factors.One is the birth rate, or the number of people being born, and the other is death rate, or the number who die. The difference between the two is called the rate of natural increase† (Stefoff 25). So let's say the birth rate is 5 children per second, and the death rate is 2 deaths per second. The population in this case will increase by 3 per second. Overpopulation occurs when this number grows rapidly. I would like to introduce the Malthusian theories, which explains why overpopulation occurs (Stetoff 34).Basically the theory explains that since population increases geometrically (1-2-4-8-16) and while resources can only grow arithmetically (1-2-3-4-5), overpopulation will occur. As such, any country with a geometric increase in population will eventually face this problem and that country should take drastic measures to solve this problem of overpopulation. Egypt, as example, is facing the problem of overpopulation. According to recent statistics the population of Egypt right now is 81 million, while in 1951 the population was 20 million (Mountjoy 121).That means the population more than quadrupled over a period of just sixty 60 years. Clearly such drastic increases can't go unseen and since it clearly shows a exponential growth one can expect t he population of Egypt to increase by a larger factor in the upcoming year. Given that the country is 97% desert (Mountjoy 121), one can assume that expansion of agriculture is strictly limited. With this course of overpopulation, the country's agricultural expanding won't be able to catch up with such an increase of population.The reason behind this overpopulation is not only due to lack of government enforcement on child policies, but in my opinion, also due to the Egyptian mentality that having more children will result in God rewarding them. I have come to learn this through friends who claim that the average Egyptian will have an average of 6 children. As result of this, Egypt should take steps towards resolving this overpopulation crisis as soon as possible or prepare to face such consequences. Since we can acknowledge the existence of overpopulation now, we must therefore find solutions to this problem.At this rate, the population of earth will reach 9 billion by 2050 which i s a 15% increase from the current population. If we let this problem go untouched, we will reach a point where solving overpopulation will technically be impossible. As such, tackling this problem as soon as possible, will make these solutions easier to implement. Although one such way to avoid overpopulation is do what China did: implement a one-child policy, in which the family can't have more than one child (Engelman). Although this solution will work, this path must not be taken because it deprives a human of their rights and a solution like this isn't practical.One technique Robert Engelman suggested was â€Å"elevating woman’s status and increasing access to contraceptive services, so that essentially all births result from intended pregnancies†. Only 4 out of 5 pregnancies are intended (Engelman) and if a global movement was enforced to eliminate all unwanted pregnancies, any overpopulated country will see an immediate fall in population growth and within a few decade the population growth will subsequently decline. This increase of accessibility to contraceptive measures will definitely help Egypt battle their overpopulation problem.This comes back to the question: Are we facing the problem of overpopulation in the Middle East, and I assure you, yes we are. This research paper was dedicatedly made to give awareness of the rising problem of overpopulation, especially in the Middle East. Overpopulation occurs when a country's population is much more than their provided resources, causing resources to be depleted much faster and the inability of the country to sustain it's population. Through research, it was concluded that Egypt is one example of a Middle Eastern country facing overpopulation at a very high rate.Therefore, a country cannot look past this overpopulation problem and must prioritize their efforts towards finding solutions to tackle this problem. Although a bunch of solutions exist, some of them should not be approached as they contradict with human rights and human freedom. One suggested solution to this problem is to elevate woman’s status and increase their accessibility to contraceptive measures in order to avoid any unwanted pregnancies. I can conclude that the existence of overpopulation is imminent, but every problem has a solution, and countries should tackle this problem without second thought.