Monday, September 30, 2019

Educational Philosophy Essay

Human nature is the product of one’s environment. Change the environment to change the behavior. Reinforce good behavior, punish bad behavior Conservation of cultural heritage preserves the wisdom of the achievements of humankind. Behavior evolves within the conditioning influence of the institutional system, tradition is the repository of a collective social intelligence. Constructivism is an educational methodology which asserts that learners should be taught in a way that allows them to construct their own understandings about a subject. The purpose of the teacher is not to cover material but to help the child â€Å"uncover† the facts and ideas in a subject area. Essentialists believe that children should learn traditional basic subjects. (Reading, Writing, Literature, Foreign Languages, History, Math, Science, Art, and Music. ) Generally teaches children progressively, from less complex skills to more complex. Schools should transmit the traditional moral values and intellectual knowledge that students need to become model citizens. Focus is on basic skills. Existentialism rejects the existence of any source of objective, authoritative truth about metaphysics, epistemology, and ethics. Do not accept any predetermined creed or philosophical system and from that try to define who we are. Aim for the progressing of humanity. Use independent thinking. It engages the student in central questions of defiming life and who we are. Answers imposed from the outside may not be real answers. The only real answers are the ones that come from inside each person, that are authentically his or her own. For the existentialist, there exists no universal form of human nature; each of us has the free will to develop as we see fit. â€Å"Stimulate learners to achieve a more vital and fuller identification with the Absolute Mind or the Macrocosm†¦ Students come into a gradually expanding mental awareness that leads to self-definition based on a comprehensive understanding or perspective of the universe. † (Gutek, p21) Liberalism focuses on the individual. Ideas come from experience. Sensation and reflection create learning. Behavior Modification Conserve/preserve heritage. Constructivism Essentialism Willaim C. Bagley Arthur Bestor Existentialism Idealism Plato Liberalism John Locke Marxism Karl Marx Marxism promotes socialism, as opposed to capitalism where one class oppresses another. Education is use d to change society. Naturalism Rousseau The child should develop in the natural way s/he is designed, guiding the process Perennialism Perennialism Robert M. Hutchins Perennialists believe that one should teach the things of everlasting importance to all people everywhere. They believe that the most important topics develop a person. Philosophy is improtant to study. Studens should learn principles, not facts, teach scientific reasoning, not facts. Teach first about humans, not machines or techniques.. Perennialism focuses first on personal development. Prepared for ED828 Educational Philosophies and Change Jean Marrapodi †¢ Capella University †¢ September 2003 Construct new ideas Back to the Basics What is real? Striving for the ideal Blank slate of individual experience All for all Natural development of the child Like perennial flowers, great principles repeat Educational Philosophies. Philosophy Pragmatism Philosophers Beliefs Key Thought John Dewey Scientific problem solving, experiential learning Progressivism William Kilpatrick Realism Aristotle â€Å"Ideas were to be judged by their consequences when acted on; truth was a warranted assertion, a tentative statement based on the application of hypotheses to solving problems; logic, following the scientific method was experimental; values were experienced within the context of ethical and aesthetic problems and issues charged by the unique features of particular situations. † Gutek, p 77. Progressivists believe that education must be based on the fact that humans are social animals who learn best in real-life activities with other people. Teachers provide not just reading and drill, but also real-world experiences and activities that center around the real life of the students. Discovery follows the scientific method: 1. Become aware of the problem. 2. Define the problem. 3. Propose hypotheses to solve it. 4. Test the consequences of the hypotheses from one’s past experience. 5. Test the most likely solution. â€Å"Cultivate human rationality, the human’s highest power, through the study of organized bodies of knowledge†¦encourage human beings to define themselves by framing their choices rationally, to realize themselves by exercising their potentiality for excellence to the fullest, and to integrate themselves by ordering the various roles and claims of life according to a rational an hierarchical order. † Gutek, p 41 Education should examine, define the problems and change the social structure of society. Rebuilding Society George S. Counts Social Reconstructionism. â€Å"Learn by Doing! † Rationally real Theistic Realism Thomas Aquinas Similar to realism, but God is central God in the core Totalitarianism Adolph Hitler Totalitarianism is a political system in which a citizen is totally subject to state authority in all aspects of day-to-day life. Government controls education. Total dependence on government Utopianism Robert Owen A perfect society can be achieved through the education of the young. Perfect society through education Prepared for ED828 Educational Philosophies and Change Jean Marrapodi †¢ Capella University †¢ September 2003.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Syrian Revolution

The Syrian Revolution is important on many levels. This importance is explored in the aspects of Syrians political government, economic and social status and the beginning of a wide spread resistance against dominating governments taking part in the Middle East. Hence, the Syrian Revolution plays a significant impact on the modern world and the future of the Syrian population. In March, 2011 an uprising took place by poor and unsatisfied citizens in the capital of Syria, Aleph, as a major part of theArab Spring (a series of revolts in triggered by citizens demanding law reforms and an improved government in the Middle East). Rebel groups then developed as a source of rebellion against the government of Basher AAA Sad, including The Syrian Muslim Brotherhood. Countries such as Tunisia, Egypt and Libya heavily influence the revolt in Syria after their protests and riots, in their own countries, to achieve Justice from their governments, have been reached but not entirely resolved. This topic has an excessive importance over me and my family.It has broadened my understanding f the world and the extent individuals will go to for power. The Syrian Revolution also impacts me culturally due to me originating from the Middle East. It has demanded the attention of the social media and people all over the world. I believe It will become an Immense icon In modern history over the years to come and that It will also lead to a colossal change In current Syrian society and for the further generations. To conclude, the Syrian Revolution of 2011 Is of great significance to modern society and the future of modern history for the world as well as Syrian citizens.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Advertising and Print Media Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Advertising and Print Media - Essay Example This is particularly because most of the affluent consumers are often more apt to spending on luxury vehicles and are therefore the main target of luxury automakers such as BMW, Audi and Mercedes-Benz (Shea, 1). Generally, luxury products as opposed to other products usually benefit from consistent and long term advertisement. According to many analysts, what have really worked for the BMW is the advertising marketing efforts that focused on the product, good service and attractive values. According to Maguire(2), BMW has been identical with unique comfort and fine quality for several decades and has particularly created a number of campaigns that featured in magazine ads, television and web ads that presented its products as the ultimate luxury vehicles in an attempt to boost its sales. â€Å"The road home† Web film Advert In 2012, the giant automaker featured emotions of holiday homecomings it one of its social videos known as â€Å"The road home†. The video showed pe ople making numerous trips in BMW x series vehicles and the company wished the consumers well during and after the holiday season (BMW web film, 2012). Although the video was first posted on BMWs social media accounts such as the Facebook, it soon featured in the other popular channels such as the television and was particularly aired on NBC during a Football broadcast. BMW. TV Advert for series 3 Sedan BMW also showed off one of its new 3 series sedan on an extensive mail campaign that also featured glossy print images and attractive postcards highlighting some of the luxury features of the new 3 series Sedan. Additionally, to enhance its brand identity, BMW has also enacted a 360 degrees marketing and branding campaign that shows the company’s sponsorship of sporting activities such as Team USA in the 2012 London Olympics. The advert attempts to depict that the BMW 3 series sedan car never wanders away over the white line and seat belt should be fastened. System authorizati on demands that a car being driven should not be more than the legal speed limit, otherwise subtitle tells professional drivers on closed roads. These hotshot directors run the shoot. Generally, the TV commercial advert seeks to present the new BMW 3 series as the ultimate luxury vehicle that offers a unique driving pleasure as well as other important driving features such as adaptive suspension, Analysis of the two BMW ads Given the high success of â€Å"The road home† web film by the BMW, the company has significantly increased its sales. According to O' Guinn and Chris (14), brand promotion requires a series of well coordinated media campaigns that communicate a cohesive theme of brand identity. In this regard, given the rising sales of BMW luxury vehicles following the launch of the two advertisements, it can be argued that the company has successfully used both the traditional media advertisements and web advertising to enhance their product awareness, sales, customer lo yalty, competitiveness and the overall company value. Generally, there are a number of sociological, economic, political and cultural attitudes that are indirectly reflected in both the two BMWs adverts. According to O’Neill, advertisements are just but a reflection of our society. Throughout his publication,

Friday, September 27, 2019

Target Population Needs at JHUSON Primary Care Clinic Case Study

Target Population Needs at JHUSON Primary Care Clinic - Case Study Example In addition, the two years funding by a philanthropist and the offer by Microsoft for both hardware and software installations as opportunities. On the other hand, one threat is the daily violence experienced in the area. One social factor playing out from this case study is that only 50% of the people in this location are enrolled in some medical insurance. In effect, another 50% of the population has no form of medical insurance. On the other hand, there is a high case put forward concerning expected emergency cases in the hospital influenced by the violence cases. In addition, there is a prevalence of respiratory diseases, teen pregnancy, personal and intergenerational drug and alcohol use in the neighbourhood. Observing these facts, which could bring emergency medical cases, ensures that the facility will be wary of emergency cases and thus avoid Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act of 1986 violations (Smith, 2002; Strickler, 2006). According to a Harris Poll conducted in 2002, most Americans preferred hospitals that had nurses with speciality certification (Advanced Practice Nursing Roles, n.d.). Therefore, with this external opportunity will help JHUSON employ nurses that were specialists in the common illnesses in the neighbourhood. In this regard, the neighbourhood will feel safe in the hands of specialists. Another external opportunity related to JHUSON’s business plan concerns the use of health information technology. With its quest of having the service a model for future HIT-enabled inner-city community-based models of care, JHUSON stands to benefit. The government has federal financial incentives to the health service providers that make meaningful use of the electronic method of keeping health records (Jha, DesRoches, Kralovec & Joshi, 2010). Thus, with the business tailored to come with a benefactor in a HIT in the form of Microsoft, the JHUSON service will stand to benefit in terms of financial initiatives offered to HIT users by the government.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Business Finance assignment Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Business Finance assignment - Research Paper Example The investor in question believed that smaller firms are less risky compared to larger firms. It is always important to diversify portfolios in order to spread the idea of the risks. Comparing with the 2011 beta or 1.08, the above beta of 1.06 seems to provide a good measure of how the stock movers relative to the broader Australian market index. The function of beta is to measure the risk of stock in relation to the overall market. From the above calculations, it is evident that the selected portfolios are less risky and have diversified the possible risks. On this basis, it is therefore true to say that the investor is likely to have very little loss and fear of risks associated with portfolios. The beta calculated from the investment portfolios is a clear indication of how the portfolio has diversified risks as well as low risk compared to the Australian Market index in 2011. The financial investment was very successful providing additional profit or income of approximately $7,110. In addition to the income received from the portfolio, there is no doubt that the risks associated with the same are too low. For instance, the beta obtained for the overall portfolio clearly indicates that the selected investment portfolios have widespread risks besides being lower than the 2011 Australian Market index beta. When portfolios have spread risks as well as low risks then it is advisable to engage in the investment. The above case scenario is a good example of investment portfolio, which was not only of viable income in terms of increased revenue or income but also given the fact that there were low risks involved, which in any case were widely spread across different firms from different industries and sizes. Indeed, the investment portfolio was a successful

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Review on Ghost Soldiers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Review on Ghost Soldiers - Essay Example Ignorance remains an integral reason as to why people remain clueless about the experiences of soldiers engaged in war (Shlachter, 2001). In addition, the traumatized soldiers’ training expects them to remain resilient and not break under pressure. As a result, many of them suffer in silence from the traumatic experiences. They avoid recounting to their family and friends about what they went through during the deployment periods (Shlachter, 2001). Therefore, Hampton Riley’ Ghost Soldiers’ provides an exhilarating tale of the lives of US soldiers engaged in a dangerous mission during World War II. This novel provides insightful information for people possessing extremely limited knowledge on the experiences faced by soldiers at war (Shlachter, 2001). The setting of Hampton‘s novel is in January 28, 1945 during the World War II. He gives a narration of the experiences of the 121 hand-picked troops chosen to form the 6th Ranger Battalion (Riley, 2002). Their mission was to slip behind enemy lines in the Philippines and try to rescue the 513 Prisoners of Wars (POWs) of British and American descent. Their captors subjected them to inhumane conditions during both the time of the Bataan death march and the three year captivity period at a camp near the city of Cabanatuan (Riley, 2002). The 6th ranger battalion thought they would be dealing with only a few dozen prison guards. However, as they continued to advance deeper behind the enemy lines, it became clear that Cabanatuan had become a significant transshipment point for the Japanese soldiers. As a result, the 6th Ranger soldiers would have to face as many as 8,000 soldiers (Hoover, 2001). Hampton gives a detailed, gruesome narration of what the soldiers had to endure in order for their mission to prove successful. In his account, he applauds the leadership tactics employed by Lt. Col Henry Mucci; leader of the 6th Ranger Battalion (Riley, 2002). Hampton intricately combines three differe nt stories meshing them into one tale. The first tale revolves around the atrocities committed by the Japanese (Riley, 2002). Hampton delves into the details of the fundamental differences in culture. He also addresses the errors in Judgment, for example, there existed an assumption that only 25,000 American and Filipino troops were available to take part in the Bataan Death March; the actual number was 100,000. Hamptons diverges from the exploits of the soldiers providing an entirely different outlook of ‘high pockets’; individuals who risk their lives to become spies for the US (Riley, 2002). Claire Phillips rises into prominence in Hampton’s accounts of these risk takers. She pretends to be of Italian descent and starts the Tubaki night club despite the fact that she is a GI’s wife. She manages to spy on the Japanese soldiers supplying the information gathered to the local guerillas (Riley, 2002). The High Pockets’ run comes to an end when the Ja panese secret police manage to capture them. The final story revolves around the 6th Rangers Battalion’s mission to rescue the POWs. Hampton provides details on the choosing of the 121 soldiers to form the Battalion. The detailed information provided in the content affirms his dedication to his work; the research done proves impeccable (Riley, 2002). Hampton provides an epic end to his book through the successful rescue of the POWs. The warm welcome of the captives in San Francisco leaves readers heart lifted after the previous heartbreaking stories narrated in the book (Riley, 2002). Ghost Soldiers; is a thrilling battle saga in which author Hampton explores the mystery of human behavioral traits when faced with extreme, stressful conditions (Shlachter, 2001). His first take was on the POWs

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Does High School Affect Social Mobility Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Does High School Affect Social Mobility - Essay Example Student mobility i.e. students moving from one school to another for reasons other than being promoted to the next school level-is common in the United States. It is a topic that repeatedly surfaces in discussions about the problems of urban schooling. Remarkably, it tends to fade from the program as discussion turns toward reform initiatives and school restructuring. Student mobility and the resulting school instability are usually relegated to a background condition a part of an external context to which schools must adjust. However, mobility's effects can be deep and wide-ranging. They penetrate the crucial activity of schools the interaction of teachers and students around learning. In addition, not only does mobility have an effect on those students who are changing schools, it also more in general disturbs the functioning of classrooms and the basic operations of schools. This is not to say that just reducing student mobility will unavoidably translate into school improvement. Stable schools can also provide bad quality instruction to their students. Stability, in contrast, provides a base condition on which a school can build and transform successful programs. Without a certain level of stability, it is in doubt how school -based educational programs, no matter how modern, could effectively develop and show long-term impact. Mobility is an occurrence that is strongly deep-seated in the urban context and in urban schools. Accordingly, no one-policy approach alone is likely to reduce its prevalence and to improve its effects. The analyses suggest that an array of policy issues merit consideration. Discussions should focus on two levels: policies that can assist in decreasing the level of mobility between schools, and initiatives that can assess the negative impact of student mobility on learning and support school improvement efforts more generally. Over their whole elementary and secondary careers, most students make at least one non-promotional school change (Rumberger et al., 1999). Many educators think that student mobility is a definite result of students changing residences. In actual fact, 2000 U.S. census data show that 15% to 18% of school-age children moved in the previous year. There have also been indications that welfare reform may affect moving, with parents moving to accept jobs. On the other hand, research has also found that between 30% and 40% of school changes are not related with residential changes (Kerbow, 147-169; Rumberger et al., 1999). School factors such as overcrowding, class size reduction, suspension and expulsion policies, and the general academic and social climate also contribute to student mobility. The increase of parental options included in the No Child Left Behind legislation may also contribute over time to increased mobility. Impact on Students Academic Growth: A Literature Review The existing studies of the effect of student mobility on achievement tend to point out that a general decline in achievement is associated with mobility (Benson, Haycraft, Stayaert, & Weigel, 444-47; Benson & Weigel, 15-19; Blane et al, 127-42; Felner et al., 449-59; Johnson & Lindblad, 547-52; Schuler, 17-24; Wood et al., 1334-1338). The

Monday, September 23, 2019

Living Inside and Outside Prison Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Living Inside and Outside Prison - Assignment Example Although there are certain preconceived notions about prisoners and their way of life within the system, the existence of police shows and their realistic prison life story lines have helped me understand what prison life may actually be like and has provided me with a wider perception of who these prisoners are and what it takes to survive on the inside. Our class readings helped to further reinforce that which I already knew and added to my knowledge of the real life situation these prisoners experience. Survival in a normal society is set upon societal rules drawing from our Bill of Rights. It allows us immense freedom within which to understand others, live our lives, and choose whom we shall mingle with socially and why. These rules do not exist in prison. I believe this is because of a difference in perception. While free people view leaders like the police and other government officials as friends who help keep order and peace within our communities, prison guards and administrative staff are viewed by prisoners as enemies who are out to make their life harder through punishments and deprivation of what little liberties the prisoners enjoy. And it is because of that very reason that inmates and prison staff are not allowed to form friendships. Since the staff are viewed as the enemies, their lives are in danger each time that they mingle with the prisoners. Prisoners see them as the conveyors of punishment and mistrust. They cannot be trusted by the prisoners because they function by rules which are meant to deprive prisoners of their humanity and individualism. At least that is how I believe the prisoners collectively view the prison

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Discuss the need for volunteers to serve in the community and evaluate Essay

Discuss the need for volunteers to serve in the community and evaluate your own experience - Essay Example The US military and medical filed has a long tradition of using the services of volunteers (Ellis). Moreover, community volunteering is essential for parish services, eradicating superstitions from the society, giving awareness to illiterate people about the needs of education, giving aids to the people when they faces some kind of natural or manmade disasters, giving aid to the physically or mentally disordered persons etc. Community volunteer services are of two kinds. In some cases the volunteers get remuneration whereas in some other cases, the volunteers extend their services free of cost. In any case, the need for community volunteers and their services are increasing in the current world as the governments have limitations in serving the public to their utmost satisfaction. This paper briefly explains the need for community volunteering and my own experience as a community volunteer. â€Å"The United Nations proclaimed the year 2001 as the "International Year of Volunteers" to celebrate the vital contributions of volunteers worldwide† (Kimberley et al). Community volunteering is taking place in almost every country in different forms. At the time of writing this report, reports from Haiti shows that more than 100000 people dead and many injured due to a severe earthquake happened there a couple of days before. Reports show that many people are still alive under the destructed building struggling to get out from there. Community volunteers can contribute a lot in giving aid to the people of Haiti. As the Haiti administration have lot of limitations in assisting these people, the services of international community workers are essential for Haiti at present.   Rescue teams from countries including China and France have already reached the capital of Haiti (UN chief "heartened" by scale of global response to help Haiti quake victims). Haiti disaster is one

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Uniforms in schools today Essay Example for Free

Uniforms in schools today Essay Students wearing uniforms prevents violence in todays schools. Uniforms are equal and give students a sense of security because everyone is the same. Students need to be able to go to school to learn, that should be the sole purpose of going to school. These days most schools dont have dress codes and students wear whatever they want. These kinds of clothing can be distracting and disrespectful to the students. Girls wear revealing shirts and tank tops, guys wear pants that fall down, and they also wear distracting types of shirts with violence or vulgar language on them. Uniforms are a lot more respectable and a lot more mature, and they wont be a distraction to the students and the teachers. Now, some people would say that uniforms are a little too formal. There are many different kinds of uniforms however. Private schools such as catholic schools have more formal uniforms with collared shirts and plaid skirts for the girls. For the boys collared shirts, ties and cargo pants. Students these days really take advantage of the dress code, they wear whatever they want and a lot of them get in trouble for it. Many students are sent home during school hours because their clothing is inappropriate. These students waste valuable learning time, and distract other students from learning as well as the teacher. Disrupting the class can be prevented if students wear uniforms. Uniforms could solve the problem that every school faces, the problem of dealing with students who break the rules of the dress code. Unfortunately, there are many other problems in the schools these days but uniforms are a good place to start. Uniforms come in many different shapes and styles. No one uniform is alike. Many uniforms are similar to the schools colors, but most are not as formal as you would think. Uniforms are made for one purpose only, to make students equal. Students dont understand the importance of a good education. Some people disagree with uniforms because they believe in freedom of speech. They believe that they have the right to wear whatever they want to. People like to express themselves by the way of wearing their own style. Students express themselves in many different ways, but the most popular way that they express themselves is wearing what they want. Lots of students have different opinions on the situation, some agree and some disagree. My sister  goes to a Catholic school and she wears a uniform everyday. She enjoys the strict atmosphere of the school and she loves wearing a uniform. In her opinion, its saves money and you dont have to worry about what to wear everyday. Now some people would say that uniforms are expensive and you only wear them for a few years, plus there are different kinds of uniforms for different seasons. Plus people grow and you cant return them after wearing them. You can resell them but you can never get your money completely back. However, most people who go to private schools are rich, so they dont really care about spending money on uniforms every few years. Education gives you the ability to learn. It gives you a broad aspect of what life would be like after high school and college. A lot of people strive for a higher education, college. They believe that having a higher education will make them succeed in life more than just having a high school education. This may be true, but it isnt exactly a proven fact. Some people just arent made to go to college. Some do just fine with a high school degree. Everyone is different, it just depends how motivated you are and how far you want your education to go. The most important thing is an education, it shows how much you really want to learn by how far you go. Uniforms can do a lot of good in schools, it can prevent violence and keep students on track in school. Uniforms are not distracting and everyone is equal, no one can judge anyone if they are all wearing the same thing.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Shortage of working capital its effect on Business

Shortage of working capital its effect on Business Working capital is defined as the operating liquidity available to a business, organisation or any other business entity. It is also part of a companys operating capital. A business is said to be liquidated when its current asset are more than its current liabilities, but it would have a working capital deficiency when its current liabilities are more less the current assets. Calculation: Net Working Capital = Current assets Current liabilities. To ensure that the a firm is able to continue its operation and that there is sufficient cash flow to satisfy both maturing short-term debt and upcoming operational expenses, working capital should be well managed. Working Capital Management This is a strategy of maintaining  proficient  levels of both aspects of working capital, current assets and current liabilities, in deference to one another. Working capital management guarantees that a company has adequate cash flow in order to meet its short-term debt duty and operating expenses.   Liquidity Cycle Managing working capital is all about ensuring that cash available for business (day-to-day) use is sufficient to meet cash requirements at any given time. This means having enough liquidity. The management of working capital is a continuous process, such that when a business takes off production, it takes time to generate income. Money to pay for stock and other running costs will need to be found from the initial capital invested in the business. As the business cycle continues, income from customers will be available to offset expenditure. Sufficient funds are needed to pay for additional expenditure until the revenue revives. This continuous process is known as Liquidity Cycle. Credit Sales Customers (Debtors) Pay up Capital injected into a big firm Purchase of Materials Produced goods Purposes of working capital management To ensure that a business firm has enough finance to meet short-term financial needs To keep cash moving rapidly through the cycle, so that there is enough funds to make future orders Effects of shortage of working capital Insufficient working capital is the commonest cause of business failure and liquidity. Many liquidity problems are a result of the firm not setting aside sufficient more for working capital (resulting to a hand-to-mouth) suppliers A firm with too little working capital will struggle to pay its bills on time because it has no spare cash and hence resort to delaying payments which also affects suppliers. It may need to borrow more money to pay supplier at high interest charge. Bank High additional cost of interest charges from banks are mostly associated to borrowed funds. However, loan providers also find out and want to be sure or assured that their borrowers are efficiently managing their working capital problems before loans are granted Missed opportunities A firm with shortage of working capital will miss many profit generating opportunities ranging from inability to exploit profitable investment opportunities to inability to buy supplies in bulk. Restricted present and future development or growth Working capital shortage will hinder the present and future growth and expansion of a business and will make a firm unable to complete with its dominant competitors in a competitive business environment Causes of working capital shortage There are two places where the cause of the shortages of working capital could be identified, and these are the Internal and external. These areas are addressed as follows: Internal causes Production delays and interruption that do not make the finished good reach end users Industrial strikes Marketing problems which are provoked by low demand of a product and longer credit terms aimed at shifting unsold stocks Managerial problems due to poor stock management or production management that can result to additional costs. External Causes Changes to economic climate such as inflation, taxation, interest rate, recession Demand decrease (fall) caused by changes in taste, fashion etc Unexpected non-payment by customers resulting to bad debt. Working capital control measures To maintain a good liquidity ratio, a firm should effectively/efficiently manage the elements of its working capital such as; debtors, cash, stocks, creditors etc. The following are measures taken to manage a firms working capital and also to avoid insufficient or shortage in the capital: TRADE DEBTORS MANAGEMENT Establish a credit policy in relation to normal credit periods and overall credit control Establish a policy on individual credit (oblique) limit. Debt collection management such as; Prompt Invoicing Offer discount to clients who pay on time Issue monthly statement to debtors(as reminder) Institute an effective debt collection and control system Collect overdue debt TRADE CREDITORS MANAGEMENT Increase the range of goods and services bought on credit i.e. have a good credit rating Dont over extend the period of time taken to pay debt Collecting payments efficiently by increasing the portion of cash customers STOCK MANAGEMENT Ensure an efficient production process Minimising stock levels of work in progress Ensure goods are delivered promptly Minimising stocks of finished Minimising stock losses Efficient inventory control CASH MANAGEMENT Use of cash-flow forecast Plan for moments where there will be too little cash to avoid liquidity crisis Cash planning and budgeting Cash flow management Accelerate fund movement among banks

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Domino Theory :: essays papers

Domino Theory The Domino Theory Here is my report on the Domino Theory The ?Domino Theory? is a complex and interesting theory. It is based on a simple rule of physics. That rule is inertia. Inertia is defined in the dictionary as, ?the tendency of matter to remain at rest or to continue in a fixed direction unless affected by some outside force.?1 This can be seen by making a line of dominoes, one right after the other and pushing the first domino over. The rest of the dominoes will fall over until the last one is down. They gain speed and power as the process is carried out. This analogy can be used to show what could happen to the political make-up of a specific geographical area in the world. The analogy, though, uses domino?s instead of countries. That is to say that if one country in a region practiced one particular type of government this might influence neighboring or bordering to adopt this type of government, for example the underlying principle behind the domino theory. Although the domino theory has physically been occurring since the beginning of time, it was only given a specific name and meaning 44 years ago by president Dwight D. Eisenhower. He used this theory to refer to the potential spread of communism in Southeast-Asia. He specifically said that,?You have a row of dominoes set up, you knock over the first one, and what will happen to the last one is the certainty that it will go over very quickly. So you could have a beginning of a disintegration that would have the most profoun d influences.?2 The influences that he was talking about were the influences of communism. He believed as many others did that if one country in Southeast-Asia fell to communism then all of the surrounding countries would also. President Eisenhower had led the allied coalition against Hitler in Europe during WWII. He was deeply disturbed by the way that Communism had taken hold of Eastern Europe after the war. He was also concerned by the way that Asia had been taken over by Japan so easily in WWII. This build-up can be shown in the maps below. As you can see the size of Japan?s power at the end of its rule is about twice as large as its power at the beginning. The countries which bordered Japan fell over to Japan very quickly as the war went on and giving Japan more power while doing so.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Developing a Business Website Essay -- Business Management Studies Ess

Developing a Business Website Developing a Business Website Simulation Analysis Developing a business website is a much more complex task than simply buying some servers and hosting a site. There are a variety of issues that arise that must be addressed in order to ensure that your website is not only functional but is actually of use to your customer to differentiate yourself from the competition. In the world of online trading the vendor must consider how the features of the site are generated, offering free or â€Å"pay for† services, and determining the functionalities that the customer will require. In working with the company budget, Primus Securities will need to make specific decisions about the site’s features and services to direct new and existing customers to the website. The success of this venture will center on the brand and the consumer perception of the brand. The features that will be implemented must extend the brand at each phase of improvement and make the customers experience a safe, reliable trading source that sets to differentiate itself from the competition. All feature selections and site enhancements must be done with the purpose of improving customer interaction and the perception of the Primus brand to it current and future customers. Site Features To offer the consumer the level of features they require, Primus must determine whether to hire a set of dedicated professionals or outsourcing these functions. There are pro’s and con’s to each scenario but ultimately a decision must be made to set the framework for the site. If the company chooses to hire a supporting staff dedicated to installing and maintaining these features, they will incur the added fixed expense of salary, benefits, equipment, etc. Although there an added expense of hiring the staff, they will able to serve in multiple support roles such as installing the stock banner and the portfolio ticker. This is not simply a monetary decision where the company should consider which option offers the lowest cost since this investment will determine how quickly the turnaround for enhancements and improvement will be made. The company must also consider that there will be future upgrades and changes and it may be in its interests to have an internal staff to be held accountable and that can be focused on the priority tasks as det... ...xtremely beneficial. Not only should these ads be placed in industry specific sites like CBS, but Primus could also seek out popular investment message boards and forums and sponsor the site. By sponsoring the site, Primus could have banner ad placement and develop an appreciation from the potential customers that are benefiting from the investment. This may help to generate goodwill and generate some discussion on the site. Conclusion Any new business venture can expect a slow start and may not turn a profit for some time. The key to establishing a successful new eBusiness venture is to create a good and unique website, adequately marketing that site to potential consumers, and consistently reviewing and enhancing the site to meet customer needs and new trends in the marketplace. Primus was able to turn its venture profitable in a relatively short period of time by created a site that centered around the customer, working within its budget to enhance features that added value, and effectively utilizing resources (i.e. Staff, Financial) to generate the website. References: Rayport-Jawprski. (2003). Introduction to e-Commerce. McGraw-Hill

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

How does Shakespeare examine the themes of revenge in Hamlet Essay

The revenge tragedy established itself within Elizabethan theatre as a tremendously popular genre. The style of the play had gradually evolved from the works of Seneca, an ancient Roman playwright. Once translated these plays performed, steadily rose in popularity, with plays such as Middleton’s ‘The Changeling’, Kids ‘The Spanish Tragedy’ and Tourneurs ‘The Revenger’s Tragedy’ being most popular. The ‘typical’ revenge tragedy play has several important conventions within it, which are key to the genre. see more:revenge hamlet A five part structure of: Exposition, anticipation, confrontation, partial execution and completion, portray the central character – the revenger, discovering the deed he must avenge, wrestling with his conscience over the justification and validity of the act, then planning and eventually executing the act of revenge. Often Jacobean revenge tragedy often questioned the revengers’ morality. How far does the task of revenge affect the revenger? How far does it taint the person? How can the audience be sure the protagonists’ madness is not actually real? Is it possible that the conflicting morality suffered by him brings unto the revenger real madness and mental instability? The questions over morality are furthered by the death of the protagonist another generic feature. Elizabethans generally firmly believed in the concepts of ‘heaven’ and ‘hell’, dying without forgiveness from God would mean eternity in perdition like the limbo in which Old Hamlet is in, in Hamlet ‘When I to my sulph’rous and tormented flames Must render up myself’. As the revenger usually dies at the end of the play after carrying out revenge, he dies without the chance of confession and absolution. This means the act of murder has not been forgiven. Inevitably this leads us to assume the protagonist will spend eternity in hell. We can debate the authenticity of the spirit demanding for revenge. If they were once a loved one of the revenger why would they make them vow to perform a deed, which would lead them to damnation? Could it be that the spirit is not in fact the spirit of the deceased but an evil spirit taking their form, tricking the revenger? After dispensing with some of the generic features, such as narrative by the ghost, it retains many of the conventions of the revenge tragedy. Hamlet is summoned to avenge the murder of his father, by his father’s spirit, the murderer being Hamlets’ uncle, now stepfather and newly crowned King Claudius. Hamlet feigns madness to disguise his intentions of revenge and has a play entitled ‘The Mousetrap’ performed, in which the murder of Old Hamlet is re-enacted. On preparing to kill Claudius Hamlet is set back by Claudius asking for forgiveness from God in a moment of prayer. This leads to an inevitable climax, which results in the death of Hamlet, Claudius and Laertes in a typically bloody ending. All of these events are to be expected from a revenge tragedy. Further more, Hamlet contains several scenes, key to its portrayal of the revenge theme. In act one, scene five Hamlet follows the supposed spirit of his father and is informed of his fathers murder â€Å"I am thy fathers spirit†¦ sleeping in mine orchid a serpent stung me†. This scene conveys the task of revenge being set, the whole of the play hinges on this event. The imagery within this scene is also telling. Old Hamlet is dressed in battle fatigue, thus symbolizing him as a war-king; the audience having been informed of the war he started against Old Fortinbras. This suggests that Old Hamlets position in hell is right and not solely due to him being unable to confess before his untimely death. This suggests repercussion on whether or not Hamlets’ soul will actually be damned, having not confessed but essentially living a good life. If the nature of damnation does in fact relay solely on whether or not one has lived a good life, and not whether or not one has confessed ones sins, then it is possible Hamlet has gone to heaven, thus Shakespeare can be seen to be subverting the ideas of religion within the revenge tragedy genre. Young Fortinbras comments â€Å"Bear Hamlet like a solider†, in death Hamlet is viewed as a hero, in this context it is not difficult to assume he has escaped damnation The theme of kingship is continued in Act two, scene two. We are presented with an image of Claudius, which is in direct contrast to the one presented of his predecessor. Talk of Claudius averting war with Young Fortinbras, shows the new king to be one which favour’s diplomacy to war. Surely such a king is more advantageous for Denmark than a bloodthirsty leader like the image we are presented of Old Hamlet. This furthers the question of whether Hamlet has enough moral justification to take a life, especially one that is so beneficial to the country. This scene is also important as the first signs of Hamlet feigning madness are demonstrated to the audience. In act three, scene two the feature of a play within a play is portrayed. Claudius is outraged by what he sees â€Å"Give me some light. Away†. Hamlet interprets Claudius’ reaction to the play as unequivocal proof of his guilt. This a crucial turning point in the play. Up to now Hamlet has been unsure of whether or not to perform his ‘duties’. That he is assured by Claudius reaction (poor evidence in hindsight) may illustrate Hamlets degradation by the mission he has been set. â€Å"I’ll take the ghost’s word for a thousand pound† In Act three, scene four the death of Polonius can be seen to serve multiple purposes. In its most insignificant form it leads Ophelia further into the madness, which eventually leads to her death. Also it demonstrates how the revenge plot has affected Hamlet â€Å"A bloody deed. Almost as bad as kill a king and marry his brother. † He has killed, in cold blood and without provocation, the father of his love and yet seems to show little remorse. Can Hamlet still be seen as the hero of the play when he himself is placed in the same situation as Claudius? Polonius’ death introduces a secondary revenge plot. Laertes now has to avenge his father’s death, inviting the audience to compare Laertes and Hamlet as revenger. The alleged actions of Claudius have provoked a cycle of revenge plots, in which all involved are led to their deaths. The penultimate scene of the play affects the resolution of the three revenge plots. Hamlet and Laertes both achieve revenge, in doing they so they sacrifice their earthly bodies and possibly their eternal souls. Young Fortinbras revenge on Denmark for his country as he and his armies easily occupy, thus turning previous defeats on their head. Both Hamlet and Laertes at the beginning of the play were both well-liked and talented men; Hamlet had the possibilities of becoming king bestowed upon him. Yet at the end each die as a murderer who is damned to Hell. Hamlet in this form can be seen as a severe commentary on the idea of revenge, that it is the role of God to act upon those who have wronged, not the individuals’. A modern audience may read Hamlet in ways different to that of a Jacobean counterpart would have viewed it in. Themes of religion are very strong in the play, and while an Elizabethan audience may have had a strong belief in the concepts of divine retribution, a modern audience may be less convinced by this. Religion is not as central to modern life as it was in the era the play was written. Thus issues such as deeds on earth having direct consequences on a persons’ fate in the afterlife- a crucial part of the genre, lessen in their importance.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Eng 125 the Boy at the Window

The boy at the window Eng 125 January 10, 2012 Poetry it is a very real thing as well as emotional. Many people use poetry to write love poems, or even about certain things like in the poem â€Å"The Boy at the window† (Richard Wilbur). In this poem it shows a lot of emotions as I will discuss in the paragraphs to follow. Poems also are funny or scary. Poems really can be about whatever you want them to be about. He states in his audio that his five year old son was upset that his father didn’t invite the snowman in and make him comfortable. The imaginative language of this poem was very interesting. When I first went through and read the poem to myself it seemed as if he was portraying the poem to be very sad. Having a snowman melt away is a very sad thing for a child and at times they really don’t understand why they are there one day and then gone the next. When I listened to the poem in the audio version it kind of was meant as humor in parts of it. It seemed to really come to life when you could hear people laughing in the back ground and to hear how he read it. Figurative language is used in this poem as well a few times. When he states â€Å"the pale-faced figure with bitumen eyes† instead he could have said something simple like the snowman with the coal eyes. I believe this language is used in many poems to make the poems unique. I think that a poem that throws a little twist in it is something that is very interesting. Irony is also characterized in this poem. The five year old boy expects that the snowman is always going to be there but what really happens is that he melts away. This is irony because it is shows something that was expected and then something totally different occurs. I had to read the poem several times and listen to before I really understood the different elements that were in it. At least it took some time to really figure the elements that fit good to this poem. There really could be more but I think that the ones that I chose fit really well. The elements in this poem did not affect my opinion on the content of the poem. My opinion of the poem wouldn’t change no matter the element. I found it somewhat a challenge to pin point three particular elements when reading the poem because I think that there could be many. When I found one element that fit it right then I really had to think about how it worked with it and so on. I really enjoyed reading the poems and really found â€Å"The boy at the window† (Richard Wilbur) to be one that I could relate to. When I was a kid I would build snowman all the time and then wonder why they would go away. Then you got the song Frosty the snowman which actually if you listen to the lyrics they are actually pretty sad when you get thinking about it. I am now put in the same situation when building a snowman with my son and have to explain what goes on when building a snowman. References Ashford University Journey into literature Ashford University library   e-library Copyright of Computational & Mathematical Methods in Medicine is the property of Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Compare and contrast Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories of cognitive development in children Essay

This essay will compare Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories of cognitive development in children. Also, show the differences between the two psychologist’s theories. Thus, by showing their similarities like in language and adaptation theories. Further, differences like Piaget’s theory on cognitive developmental stages and the schemas which are build to learn or accommodate new words or things. Vygostky’s theory differs to Piaget’s theory by his socio-cultural and language theories. Finally, bring all this points together by drawing a conclusion. Cognitive development is defined as the growth of mental faculties from birth to adult age. This is continually process as the children go about life they learn skills, language to further their cognitive development. Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky were both interested in this field and they findings have influenced and impacted the children learn and education in better way. According to Piaget children c ognitive development is universal a process which the child goes through once and this process is divided into four different stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations and formal operations (Gross, 2004). Sensorimotor stage beginnings between the birth until two years of age. At this stage Piaget suggested that children distinguished themselves from objects. Also, they experience their environment through their senses (Gross, 2004). Further, children start to take initiative and be able to reflex like kicking playing or grasping things. In addition, children start to realise that even when the object is not visible but still exist, which is called object permanence (Beck, 2000). The second stage Piaget called it as preoperational a stage between the ages of two and seven years old. In preoperational stage children are able to use language to name objects animals and group things into groups. But their abilities of thinking at this stage still egocentric because hardily they can take the view point of others (Beck, 2000). Also, Piaget divided this stage into two; the pre-conceptual and the intuitive. First, children in preconceptual cannot differentiate colour or size at the same time a process which Piaget called centration. In contrast, Vygotsky named it as complexive  thinking meaning that when one is grouping things or events accord ing to their common features like shape or colour (Gross, 2004). The pre-conceptual stage is between the ages of two to four years. Further, children at this sub stage cannot recognise order or sequences (Gross, 2004). Second, intuitive stage takes place between the ages of four to seven years. In this stage Piaget believed that children cannot understand conservation that still the same when they change their form (Gross, 2004). The third stage is the concrete operational stage which Piaget believed that children at ages of seven to eleven they develop metal abilities of thinking logically (Carlson, 2010). Further, children at this stage understand compensation, reversibility and identity (Beck, 2000). The fourth and finally Piaget stage is the formal operational at this stage the children have ability to think abstract and logically (Gross, 2004). Thus, in this stage young people go through different changes in their development meaning that they are aware of their decisions making and taking other peoples opinions. According to Piaget this stage is between the ages of eleven until the adolescent (Gross, 2004). Thus, another different between Piaget’s theory and Vygotsky’s theory is the Piaget schemas theory. According to Piaget schemas are divided into three points the assimilation, accommodation and equilibration (Gross, 2010). Actually, schemas are defined as mental and physical aspect of understanding better children during their life span (Beck, 2004). Assimilation is process when a child adds new information into the ones which are known to her or to him (Gross, 2010). Instead, accommodation inquires adapting and be aware of new and old information. The last one is the equilibration which Piaget believed that a child at this point has the abilities to balance information back and forth in order to practise and get the information restored. And the child does it by accommodation and assimilation (Carlson, 2010). In other hand, Vygotsky suggest that language is the fundamental basis for the children cognitive development (Gross, 2010). Also, language is one the factors that influence children to use inner speech when learning new objects or words (Gross, 2010). But there is problem with this theory because other psychologists do not support this theory. Instead, Piaget argued and suggested that children at that stage are egocentric and have some form vocabulary limitation. Further, this might explain the children self talk (Gross, 2010). In another  Process which Vygotsky explained was the Zone of Proximal development which the child learn skills with help of adults to expand their knowledge (Carlson, 2010). Further, Vygotsky also suggested that by children interacting with their family members helps them to become better verbally (Beck, 2004). Furthermore, Vygotsky come with theory of scaffolding which is explained that parents or adults should support their children y solving problem step by step without causing them frustration. By doing that when children show some form of improvement of master those skills, parents should then leave the children by themselves (Carlson, 2010). But Piaget contradicts this theory by suggesting that children at this they cannot think properly (Gross, 2010). Vygotsky’s suggested that there are three processes which parents pass their knowledge through their children; imitative learning, instructed learning and collaborative learning (Beck, 2004). Imitative is when children do or copy what their role models do. Further, the instructed learning is when the child does what he or she was told by adults or puts it into practice. Another point is the collaborative learning when a group of children work together to learn or to achieve a goal (Gross, 2010). Contrary to Piaget’s theory, was the socio- cultural theory which Vygotsky suggested that, the environment in which the child grows plays an important role in cognitive development of the child. In addition, Vygotsky went on by suggest that children learn from important people in their life, like parents, teachers and friends or family members which are as role model in their point of view (Gross, 2010). This contradict Piaget’s cognitive development stages theory which he believed to be universal, and what the child goes through or what she or he learns at every age is the same everywhere in world and for every child (Beck, 2004). Looking at how Piaget and Vygotsky went about to explain their theories one can found contrast and similarities. Vygotsky focused in importance of language and how they went on learning how to resolve problems. In addition, Vygotsky’s theories lacked enough evidences to support them and for this reason they were not tested (Beck, 2004). Meanwhile, Piaget observed his own children when playing to support his theories (Gross, 2010). Further, Piaget had less interest on the social development theory. But Vygotsky focused on the social part of the cognitive development (Gross, 2010). Overall, there are differences between the Piaget’s theories and Vygotsky’s theories but in  some point there were similarities. For instance, Vygotsky focused mainly in socio- cultural suggesting that where the child grows has vital role on his cognitive development. Whereas, Piaget’s theory were more related to schemas and stages of cognitive development which Piaget suggested that they were universal. But both agreed that language is important and that teacher were important for child’s cognitive development. In brave, Piaget’s theory and Vygotsky’s theories have improved and gave better understanding of children cognitive development and also in the education. References Berk, L. E. (2000). Child Development. 5th ed. Massachusetts: Allyn & bacon. Martin, G. N., Carlson, N. R., & Buskist, W. (2010). Psychology. 4th ed. Essex:Pearson Education. Gross, R. (2004). Psychology: The science of mind and behaviour. 3rd ed. Tonbridge: Hodder & Stoughton. Piaget, J. (1950). The Psychology of Intelligence. New York: Routledge Classics.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

A Child in Pre-Revolutionary America

Perhaps I am too young to be on the right side, my mother told me.   As a five year old in Pre-Revolutionary America, I am unable to understand the true meaning of the â€Å"writs of assistance† or the â€Å"Sugar Act.†However, I feel enough for my family and the people I love to want nonviolence to prevail.   In other words, I would not want bloodshed to enter my home, nor affect the friends I have got here, including the few British friends I have recently made and who are honestly good to me.   I know about the Indian clashes against the British.While they were happening – as they still do from time to time – my mother was silent most of the time.   Yet, my father, who is a prominent lawyer and the owner of a large estate, which is referred to as a Colonial home, told me everything possible about a bigger war that may or may not be started, depending upon the conditions between the British Empire and the people of the Colonies.My father is a gre at man.   My mother tells me that Dad is visited by some of the brightest people in the Colonies.   And yet, I cannot force myself to believe in him when he tells me that the people are generally unhappy with the British Empire.When I was born, the British Empire was my so-called ruler anyway.   I did not care that they formed my government.   Neither do I care now.   I would rather allow the British Empire to stay on and pursue their goals in the Colonies, than to see war kill my family and all of my friends.   My mother, who writes poetry, tells me that my father might have to go to some of the most influential people of America and advise them in the event of a big war.   I do not want to believe her.More importantly, I fear for her more than anything else, perhaps, in the event that my father goes away during the big war that is expected and not expected at the same time.   At one time when my father became seriously ill, my mother nearly died of sadness.   She wrote and published a beautiful, sad poem in the New York Mercury at the time.   When she read the poem to me and told me how appreciated the poem was by all the people who knew her, I informed her that she need not be sad anymore because she has succeeded.She reminded me, however, that it is perfectly appropriate to be sad in the event of one’s husband’s illness.   I changed the topic then.   But I somehow gathered that at the back of her mind was the fear that my father might lose his life during a big war with the British Empire that the people in the Colonies were about ready to wage.   Perhaps a poem would not be able to alleviate her suffering at a time like that!The other day when some so-called intellectuals were visiting my home, my mother told me that they were asking all the women at the gathering, including herself, to consider working on the fashions of the times that would have nothing whatsoever to do with the British imported fashions.   Mom explained to me later that even my clothing was British most of the time.   Dad said that that was not true.Perhaps it is only in part true that I wear the kinds of clothes that British children wear in America.   And so, Mom was asked along with many other women to start thinking of new fashions that could be introduced in the absence of the British after the big expected and unexpected war.Although I do not know yet what the new fashions may or may not be, I would be interested in seeing my mother act creatively while designing the new clothes, and stop thinking about war while she is at it.   Maybe she does not think about war all of the time.   But I feel that she does.

Marketing – Packaging of Raisins

Tiffany Eu, 7605325435 Packaging Assignment – Sun-Maid Raisins There are not many brands of raisins that are found on a shelf of a typical supermarket but compared to its competitors, like Newman’s Own Raisins and Champion Raisin, the Sun-Maid raisins packaging stands out. Since sun-maid raisins come in many different packaging sizes and forms, I will focus on their 15-ounce red box packaging. Sun-maid raisins stand out due to many factors like its visibility, the information given on the packaging, emotional appeal to its consumers and the workability of the packaging.At first glance, a consumer may see three main things on the box front: sun-maid’s well-known logo, the word â€Å"sun-maid† and the word â€Å"raisins† in the middle of a picture of fresh grapes and raisins. Sun-maid’s large yellow logo of the woman holding grapes, modeled after Lorraine Collett Petersen, has been the logo for sun-maid since 1915, three years after the brand w as started. Most of its consumers worldwide are familiar with this logo and it is positioned at the top of the box where it is very visible against the red background.For those consumers who are not familiar with the brand logo, the brand name â€Å"sun-maid† is states in large yellow font across the center of the box. The word â€Å"raisins† is also stated near the bottom of the box among a picture of fresh grapes and raisins to attract consumers who may be interested in buying raisins. Another smaller logo that was introduced recently, and is probably only temporary, saying â€Å"healthy food award† and â€Å"fitness† informs consumers that sun-maid raisins carries a â€Å"Fitness Healthy Food Award† assessed by experts on the â€Å"Fitness† magazine.This logo is supported by additional information about the award, formatted as a paragraph on the back of the box, and integrates methods of consuming these raisins into the paragraph. They su ggested to â€Å"sprinkle raisins on cereals, yogurts, salads or snack right out of the package. On the front of the box, it also states â€Å"since 1912† in smaller font below their logo in order to reassure its consumers of its reliability since it has been established for so long. On the sides of the box, sun-maid informs their consumers about their nutritional facts in a able and includes a brief summary of its benefits on the other side, such as â€Å"100% natural†, â€Å"no fat†, â€Å"no preservatives† and â€Å"naturally sweet and have no added sugar†. Although not much information is needed for eating raisins, sun-maid provides instructions on how to use their resealable bag inside the box on a reusable sticker that is used to reseal the bag of raisins. Furthermore, the packaging attracts consumers by evoking positive feelings, such as happiness. The bright colours, yellow and red, are cheerful colours.Yellow reminds us of the bright sun which we associate with happiness and nature while red reminds us of the deep red/purple colour of the grapes from which the raisins are made. There is also a feeling of nature and simplicity from the traditional look of the girl holding a basket of grapes in their logo and the feel of the cardboard box as opposed to a modern looking plastic container. The feeling of nature may also induce the idea of healthiness which will attract consumers to sun-maid raisins.Other than just appealing to the consumers by its looks, sun-maid’s packaging is also successful in the way that the shape of the packaging is also very functional. The rectangular shape of the box allows for easy storage and shipment while the tall height of the box maximized the packaging front that consumers see as they pass by it on a shelf. The box is also useful for protecting the raisins from being squished and the sealed plastic bag on the inside keeps the raisins fresh and easy to store after opening (since th e bag is resealable simply with a small sticker that they provide).This larger packaging is more environmentally friendly as compared to their smaller individual packs but sun-maid does not specify if they use recycled cardboard for their boxes and the plastic bag inside a cardboard box is a little redundant in terms of being environmentally friendly. The 15-ounce packaging of sun-maid raisin is successful for the many reasons states above. Shopping in a supermarket, I would, personally, choose sun-maid over its competitors subconsciously because of its packaging and perhaps also because it is a well-know and trusted brand.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Exploring pathways and barriers to entrepreneurship and innovation in Dissertation

Exploring pathways and barriers to entrepreneurship and innovation in kuwait - Dissertation Example However, no more than 300 entrepreneurs have applied for the subsidy, which is a number small enough to make the study of exploration of barriers in the way of entrepreneurship and innovation in Kuwait as done in this research, worthwhile. Research question The research question is; What are the pathways to entrepreneurship and barriers to the establishment of SMEs in Kuwait? Research objectives This research tends to Study the historic contribution of SMEs in the economy of Kuwait Identify the pathways to entrepreneurship and barriers to innovation in Kuwait Develop a concise and objective method of capturing and evaluating the business ideas proposed by the SMEs. Devise ways to improve the tendency of entrepreneurs to take financial aid from the government to establish SMEs. Literature review Small businesses and entrepreneurship is a separate and quite developed field of study in UK supported by a lot of research in the past. Research on SMEs largely commenced in UK in 1970s (Blac kburn and Smallbone). Such a late start as compared to US can be attributed to the difference of the external conditions. In the 1970s, UK had the lowest new firm formation and small business ownership rate in the West (Bolton). â€Å"It is from this research base that we launch our attempt to describe developments since 1971 and make projections through the next decade† (Curran and Stanworth 16). Small business cultivated in UK in 1980s and in the 1990s, this field was institutionalized, consolidated, and legitimized (Blackburn and Smallbone 22). Past research has conventionally explored the link between entrepreneurial competitiveness and ethnic diversity (Kitching and Hill). Last two decades have shown a tremendous growth in the literature of SMEs (Castel-Branco 1). There is no specific definition of small firms. At sectoral level, the definition of small firms narrates the objective measure of the firm’s size which includes the sales turnover, number of workers, ne t worth of the business and its profitability. Thus, all firms may be considered small in some sectors, and yet there can be sectors where no firm is considered small (Storey). Entrepreneurship has been largely considered as a means of â€Å"decentralisation, economic restructuring and movement in the direction of market economy† (Venesaar and Loomets 1). According to (Frazer 15), there are three factors necessary for entrepreneurial endeavor, namely the trigger, pre-disposing factors, and the enabling factors. The triggers are basically of three types of triggers i.e. need for money which may be instigated by loss of job, health scare and divorce. Prior experience of job and formal education are two pre-disposing factors controlling an individual’s entrepreneurial endeavor. Availability of finance, socioeconomic factors and societal support are some of the potential enabling factors for the entrepreneurs. Kuwait has recently taken certain steps to improve her economic al strength. After a careful study of the important economic factors, Macinzee Consulting Company passed certain recommendations one of which was to strengthen the economy of Kuwait by investment in SMEs. The government released 1 billion pounds to be managed by the Kuwait Investment Authority. The funds were to be distributed among the willing entrepreneurs via four organizations, three of which were private and one organization was state-owned.

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Law of International Sales and Finance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Law of International Sales and Finance - Essay Example In international sales, however, several applicable laws co-exist creating several standards that determine whether or not a valid acceptance was made. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG), or the Vienna Convention, and Domestic Common Law are examples. Their applicability illustrates what Michael Bridge refers to as the "'bifocal' world of international sales law," where the broad provisions of the Vienna Convention and the details found in Common law are applied depending on the type of transaction being conducted2. Hence, it is crucial for contracting parties to understand the applicability of each in particular cases, as well as the differences and similarities embodied, to determine if a contract is duly enforceable or not. Since an acceptance of an offer indicates an offeree's assent to the terms of the offer and be bound by a contract, a set of established rules of acceptance are crucial in determining whether an acceptance is effective or not. First, a valid acceptance must be unqualified and without modifications or conditions of the offer. This is illustrated in Masters v. Cameron (1954) 91 C.L.R. 353, where in the case of a conditional offer, it was held that the use of the words "subject to contract" in the formation of the contract is "prima facie [to] create an overriding condition, so that what has been agreed upon must be regarded as the intended basis for a future contract and not as constituting a contract"3. With regard to counter-offers, Livingstone v. Evans (1925) 4 D.L.R. 769 states that "[i]f an acceptance does not mirror the offer, then it is ought to be construed as counter-offer4" and is considered as a rejection of the original offer. Second, acceptance must be communicated by the offeree to the offeror, where actual communication exists. Hence, silence or inactivity does not embody acceptance5. The case of Felthouse v. Bindley (1862) 11 C.B. (N.S.) 869 illustrates this point. However, acceptance can also expressed based on a party's conduct. In St. John Tug Boat Co. v. Irving Refinery Ltd. (1964) S.C.R. 614, although no acceptance was communicated, it was held that if a man's conduct indicates acceptance to an offer, "the man thus conducting himself would be equally bound as if he intended6." As illustrated in Powell v. Lee (1908) 99 LT 284, acceptance must also come from the offeree himself, or a person authorized by the offeree to accept the offer7. The manner in which an acceptance is communicated must also be given consideration. In this regard, Eliason v. Henshaw [1819] US SC, concludes that acceptance of an offer must be communicated "according to the terms in which the offer was made" such that "[a]ny qualification of, or departure from, those terms, invalidates the offer8." Offerees are therefore bound to abide by the stipulations of the offeror in terms of deadline for acceptance, method of acceptance, and the like. In Tallerman & Co. Pty. Ltd. V. Nathan's Merchandise Pty. Ltd. (1957) 98 CLR 93, the date and time that an acceptance is communicated and becomes effective is also the date and time that a contract is formed9. However, since offers are revocable10, and an offer is only effective until a time specified by the offeror or

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

American History from 1874 to 2000 Research Paper

American History from 1874 to 2000 - Research Paper Example â€Å"Fix it up or do without† became the motto for the young people coming of age during this time in America’s history. And as with all things historic, this would surely influence what has been referred to popularly as The Greatest Generation, as they entered the years of war that came on the heals of the Great Depression. Identifying a cause of the Great Depression is tricky business. Many people look to the stock market crash of 1929 as an easy answer. This actually wasn’t the real cause of the economic problems, but it was a symptom of a desperately unhealthy economy (Davis 2003). The stock market crash was a severe psychological blow to the American public. Writing this during the Great Recession that started over a year ago, some of the actions of investors in the years preceding the stock market crash of 1929 sounds like dà ©jà   vu. The stock market had for years been a place for the powerful elites of America to get even richer. They had access and knowledge of markets. The ordinary working classes steered clear. During the booming 1920’s this changed. The stock prices were rising so dramatically, middle class citizens were borrowing money to buy more stocks. Getting rich quick was the order of the day. The problem started when European investors started to notice the amount of debt American companies and banks were incurring due to speculative stock purchases. Stock prices began to decline and panic set in. People sold their stock, or attempted to before they lost everything. Banks were swamped with customers that wanted to withdraw money, but there was no money because the banks had purchased speculative stocks that were now worthless. The social and economic fallout from the crash was considerable. By 1932, just three years after the crash manufacturing and agriculture was suffering from deflation. The price of goods and commodities

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

The Main Difference between Aristotles Account of Virtue and Socrates Essay

The Main Difference between Aristotles Account of Virtue and Socrates Account of Virtue - Essay Example This is because it identifies happiness as an activity of the soul which goes together with virtue. Aristotle argues that if what individuals do is the source of happiness then, happiness must identify with activity which goes with virtue. Socrates argued that being virtuous was very much related with increasing individual’s happiness. The controversy between the two is that according to Aristotle happiness should always go in accordance with virtue. On the same note, according to Socrates virtue does not necessarily need to be highly related with happiness. Aristotle attempts to criticize Socrates for his emphasis on Socratic definitions. Aristotle does not completely agree with the argument by Socrates that knowledge is important in as far as virtue is concerned. He thinks that even if there is need for knowledge it is easily attainable as suggested by Irwin (158). Aristotle also draws the analogy between acquiring knowledge and acquiring virtue. He argues that both are gain ed through repeating similar actions. Socrates argues that a virtuous soul should also be well ordered. He also argues that power of knowledge of right and the wrong is the advantage of virtue. This is because the knowledge of the two is important to crafts of measurement. ... He also argues that knowledge of the truth is not very important as one can act accidentally or be directed by someone else. Aristotle explains that virtuous actions are objective and are performed by a virtuous agent. Aristotle is in disagreement with Socrates concerning the nature of vice and ethical value as suggested by Segvic and Burnyeat (78). According to Aristotle for an action to be considered virtuous there must be an agreement with the non-rational desires. The agreement should be for reason to express the actions are supposed to be pursued. Contrary to this, according to Socrates there is no need for prior agreement by non-rational desires concerning the setting of the ends. Therefore Socrates considers that the condition necessary for an agent to attain moral knowledge is through disciplining his or her appetites and passions. The also need to be in a harmonious condition. Aristotle fails to agree with Socrates about non-rational desires lead to errors. Socrates is of th e view that strong non-rational desires results to reason making wrong judgment about what is really good. On his account of, virtue Aristotle disagrees with Socrates denying the possibility of incontinence. Socrates argues that only ignorance of what is good and wrong lies behind apparent incontinence. Contrary to this, Aristotle asserts that Socrates argument conflicts appearances he Aristotle’s perception of incontinence seems to be puzzling and their interpretation is therefore controversial. Aristotle seems to argue that incontinent individual makes the right decision. This is because he or she is moved to action by non-rational appetite that conflicts with the decisions he or she has made. The individual acts on the appetite because its strong as opposed

Monday, September 9, 2019

Online Start-Up Plan (MAKING MONEY ONLINE) Essay

Online Start-Up Plan (MAKING MONEY ONLINE) - Essay Example Committed to customer service, the ABC Company will offer its clients the type of service that is courteous as well as punctual. Employees of the company will as well be treated in a proficient behaviour with a satisfying working atmosphere along with fair compensation. The ABC Company wants every customer to feel as though he or she has gotten a first class service at a bargain price. Objectives 1. To offer a extensive variety of commodities at affordable prices 2. To attain a good profit margin during the first year 3. To attain a modest net profit by the end of second year 4. To be a dynamic as well as vocal member of the society, and offer constant re-investment by means of contribution in community actions as well as monetary involvements Keys to Success In order to achieve something and to attract more customers in this business the ABC Company must: 1. Sell an extensive collection of products 2. Offer products and service in a manner that give 100% satisfaction to the customer s 3. Be an dynamic part of the society 4. Promote input from customers The E-Business Model The business model used by the company is affiliate marketing. Affiliate marketing (Lindahl & Rozek, p. 76, 2010) has been a very successful business model and there are many reasons for this. One does not have to have the personal product; there are little funds needed for getting started, and the vendor takes care of all the issues. Another positive part of affiliate marketing is that there are a lot of products and services you can pick from market.  For any interest, passion, or area in which someone has knowledge, there are products and services he can advertise, which makes it more appealing (Lindahl & Rozek, p. 109, 2010).  The first step company should take is to choose a suitable niche. By choosing a niche, it will be much convenient to write articles, web pages, blog posts, as well as other content essential to endorse the product. Therefore, in general it makes a great internet business model. The difficulty is that, like some other online business, it does need a large amount of time as well as dedication to make a start. However, once up and running the attempt is worth it. Nonetheless, as with any business, there is no such option of ‘getting rich quickly’. You are required to put in the time as well as effort in order to start getting benefits (Lindahl & Rozek, p. 76, 2010). Operational Issues Two significant chores facing risk managers are decisions regarding the assessment of loss and risk financing. In the quantification of risk or financial impact, sophisticated risk models can support if the correct efforts, as well as indicators are provided. Loss as well as denial of service will call for a business impact analysis in addition to the development of a network stability plan to correctly measure the potential for financial loss and lessen the severity of such a loss. Other risks will need significant evaluation if public records asso ciated to cybercrime and cyber attacks has been mainly subjective or based on unknown surveys. In addition, estimations of possible losses associated to Internet-based technologies must take into consideration the developing and indecisive universal legal and regulatory setting. Risk evaluations based only on direct revenues from

Sunday, September 8, 2019

Leadership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Leadership - Essay Example The Executive Maturity model is based on the idea that the leader should be able to respond effectively to the needs of others under pressure (Trathen 2007). The above model incorporates two key phases: in the first phase, the leader needs ‘to be aware of his own feelings, thoughts and values’ (Trathen 2007, p.71). In the second phase, the leader has ‘to manage the emotional needs of others’ (Trathen 2007, p.71), keeping a balance. On the other hand, Alexander (2008) notes that the key characteristic of a successful leader would be his ability to ‘handle crises and mitigate effects’ (Alexander 2008, p.34). Cooper (2010) notes that the identification of a leader’s competencies is necessary before trying to improve the leader’s effectiveness. After reviewing my leadership strengths and weaknesses, as presented in the previous section, I would come to the following conclusion: I should emphasize more on decreasing the time I need for managing complex tasks, so that I would become more efficient in a range of projects; I should continue focusing on details but I would try to limit the time spent on issues of secondary importance. The Executive Maturity model would help me to change my leadership style, setting appropriate priorities and increasing collaboration. Question 2 Are leaders born or made? Each leader has unique characteristics, even if the particular fact is not clear. Indeed, the leadership style is closely related to the personality of each individual and from this point of view it would be quite difficult to identify two leaders that would respond exactly the same to a series of critical events. Yuki (1988) have noted that ‘leadership effectiveness varies across situations’ (Yuki 1988, cited in... The researcher of this essay discusses the topic of leadership that today is a concept that can incorporate a high range of characteristics. Observing several responses to various challenges, the researcher could identify the strengths and weaknesses of several leaders. Referring to his own leadership strengths and weaknesses, the researcher would highlight the following issues: "I am committed to my studies, trying to respond to all the demands of my position. I have always tried to examine thoroughly the requirements of every task assigned to me, focusing on details. In case of mistakes or failures I’ve been able to respond immediately, suggesting appropriate plans of action. On the other hand, I have often failed in identifying early the risks related to a particular task.". Then , the researcher states that The Executive Maturity model would help him to change his leadership style, setting appropriate priorities and increasing collaboration. On the discussion of the second question "Are leaders born or made?", the researcher states that from his point of view, leadership is both inherited and learned, a view aligned with the view of Larkin. Then, the researcher discusses the differences between leadership & management. In summary, it could be stated that leadership focuses on establishing and promoting the practices that will enhance the performance of organization. Management aims to ensure that employees will follow the guidelines of the leader so that the targets set are achieved.

Saturday, September 7, 2019

Technology and Socity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Technology and Socity - Essay Example Despite the advantages, however, the society and the natural environment has had paid a lot for the construction of dams. Firstly, the dams have affected places that are of vital importance to some. For instance, most of the dams have flooded aboriginal burial sites and midden areas. Burial sites are something considered ‘sacred’ by the aborigines and although the authorities may have to consider the ‘common’ good by building of dams, the aboriginal society is usually affected adversely. The building of dams on the river has also affected the natural habitat. According to the Australian state of the Environment Committee (2001), the main reason for this is the way the ground quality of water has been influenced. Because of the augmentation of the flow of the river by the creation of dams, many cities have emerged alongside the river. Most of these cities are industrial sites that produce a lot of sewage and waste. Most of the waste generated by industries is thrown into the river without considering the consequences. The result is that the water quality has been affected. The Murray River has the capacity of maintaining around 2,539 kilometers of aquatic and riparian life.The contamination of the water in the rivers has affected the habitat for the aquatic life and many species are rapidly dwindling in numbers. Unfortunately along with the industrial waste and sewage, different pesticides and fertilizers are also flushed into the river. Pesticides, especially DDT, do not just kill fish and consequently humans (after ingestion of the contaminated fish). They also disturb the entire ecosystem by disturbing ecological cycles that are dependent on rivers. As a consequence, the contagion of water has led to the extinction of certain insects and birds. Further, the building of dams and weirs requires the clearing of natural

Friday, September 6, 2019

Identifying Quantifiable goals for the monitor, control and effectiveness of the marketing plan Essay Example for Free

Identifying Quantifiable goals for the monitor, control and effectiveness of the marketing plan Essay In order to evaluate, monitor, and control the effectiveness of the marketing plan, identifying quantifiable elements are detrimental to V-Techs financial gains and holdings. Marketing campaigns are the most costly measurement to the company and the launch of V-Techs Virta Window new product line in its marketing practices needs to show financial accountability. The focus of controlling and effectiveness to quantifiable elements reside in the metrics analysis of: 1. Revenue 2. Sales 3. Lead generation 4. Sales feed back 5. Return on investment 6. Customer retention Once the elements of V-Tech’s marketing campaign is identified, quantifiable goals can be set to counter financial loss and actionable measures can be taken to offset the losses for exchange of returnable gain. To begin identifying the elements of concern, V-Tech accounting management will look at: A. Product B. Place C. Price D. Promotion The product is an innovative technological breakthrough, meant to create real time life and learning experiences for its target audience. The product has little competition but may be hard to catch on in the marketplace and cause resistance within consumers. Quantifiable marketing goals that would need to be set: Be flexible to understanding that new products may need a longer campaign run. Placement metrics track the impact of consumer awareness and the impact of individual campaigns ability to reach marketing goals. Calculating metrics for analysis will determine if the whole of the marketing plan is bringing in more profit than it cost to run. Placement of the products marketing geographical and economic stature is an important  quantifiable element. A metric analysis of location placement will measure the buying power and behavior of the consumer by geographic location. If the product is not selling well in placement, location factors may be that the target areas do not have the right selling class. Geographical metrics indicate a target audience income, medium house hold income, pay scale and if the economics of the area are depressed or thriving for businesses and product buying. The goal would then be to move the marketing campaign into better location areas where purchasing is a stronger asset for the product. Measuring the metrics of geographic locations can also help the company keep a competitive advantage as more technology companies advance to offering consumers a similar product. By being better able to understand consumer behavior by geographic V-Tech will have a higher ROI(return on investment) strengthen their marketing campaigns that keep customer retention, loyalty and target a larger audience base. Pricing by far may be the most important aspect in finding quantifiable controlling elements. A new product of technology changes the whole atmosphere of the market place from how it is developed to the price of manufacturing and distribution. The marketing of V-Techs new product is to reach a broad base of a consumer audience over affordability. This may cause a huge financial loss for the company. The campaign of the marketing needs increasing without the extra-added expenditures to cover the cost of loss and turn a profit. The reasoning behind quantifiable control is marketing the product to show value, and to measure financial gains where the product and marketing campaign will exceed profit and generate profit growth. The goals would then be to do a review of past sales to compare to sales of the new product and build on the strengths that previous campaigns have generated. A metrics analysis can be done in order to find out how many people clicked on an ad from online, what the numbers of new sales are and the percentage of new leads generated. From measuring sale metri cs, the company will be able to tweak the marketing campaign, generate a new marketing design, or repeat the campaign until the marketing goals meets its value. The company will also be able to determine the effectiveness of its Public relations effort in relation to its marketing efforts. A cost saving measurement to the company and the marketing campaign would be to get out in front of the face of the audience. Increase web activity, broaden the scope of social media awareness and depth in which marketing the product can help exceeded sales goals. The promotion of V-Techs product quantifiable control elements are to measure consumer awareness and set goals if the product is failing in brand awareness, website traffic, and not generating the sales lead expectations. Taking advantage of sending out Brand Ambassadors to area store locations and increasing trade market showings will promote and target the customer audiences awareness of the new product, how it is designed and will demonstrate why the consumer has a need to purchase the product. Social media marketing is limitless for brand awareness, in where a campaign can go to reach a borde r target buying audience. The quantifiable elemental goals are to take advantage of the use of the internet’s effectiveness of marketing to cost with web videos, direct coupons to the consumer, customer loyalty incentives, package discounts on education and parental sites. Identifying the quantifiable elements that help to control a marketing plan is an invaluable asset to V-Tech technologies and its new product launch. The analyzed metric data sets timely goals to which the company can redefine its control of marketing execution to increase sales and profits. The wealth of information extracted from the identification process takes on a new format that will find strengths and weakness of the consumer target audience, and will help to keep a competitive advantage as new companies move in the territorial locations of the innovative technology that V-Tech Windows will bring to a new market place.

Thursday, September 5, 2019

History of Sensory Theatre

History of Sensory Theatre What does sensory theatre mean to the modern audience? Asone of the oldest art forms and as one of the primeval kinds of humanexpression, the nature of theatre is as varied across the continents aspainting, pottery, sculpture or any of the classic art-forms. Each civilization, each society, each gathering of humankind has had its personalform of theatrical performance from street artists to court jesters to nomadicplayers. Many would say that this variety at the very core of theatrical achievement is what has permitted theatre to take such a respected and crucialpart of our modern societies. Too often it is claimed that our present daylifestyles leave little time for abstract thinking and artistic appreciation orachievement. This is lamentable but thankfully not usually true. One need only observe the continuation of events such as the Welsh National Eisteddfod forhundreds of years to realize that the human desire and need for theatre willnever diminish. However, this is not to say that modern society has not changed theatre. It is only natural that artistic output should be modeled by the lifestyle surrounding it. After all, warlike civilizations such as the Vikings delighted in the narrating of age-old sagas whereas more enlightened peoples like the Ancient Greeks would draw inspiration from mythical dramas which detailed the flaws at the heart of humanity and their relationships with their gods, representing a search for elements greater than themselves. However,we can take it as certain that the theatrical productions of the last fiftyyears have overwhelmingly been part of a resurgence of theatrical diversity. Asthe free market has made nations more accessible to each other, a rise ininterest for all sorts of artistic expression has been felt around the world.Herein, we shall focus on the analysis and comprehension of one of these.Sensory theatre, or at least the old meaning of the term, is not a new concept.At its very core, much of what constitutes theatre relies heavily on the senses,both those of the audience and that of the actors. Nevertheless, at a time whenour fast-paced lifestyle seems to reject anything out of the ordinary or whichcan be labeled as different, it is refreshing to feel that this resurgence hasregenerated one of the truly great aspects of theatre, oft labeled as post-modernistbut one which links so much of relatively recent artistic output across theboundaries of different art forms: Post-modernity,in attacking the perceived elitist approach of Modernism, sought greaterconnection with broader audiences. This is often labelled accessibility andis a central point of dispute in the question of the value of postmodern art.It has also embraced the mixing of words with art, collage and other movementsin modernity, in an attempt to create more multiplicity of medium and message.Much of this centers on a shift of basic subject matter: postmodern artistsregard the mass media as a fundamental subject for art, and use forms, tropes,and materials such as banks of video monitors, found art, and depictions ofmedia objects as focal points for their artPostmodernisms critical stance isinterlinked with presenting new appraisals of previous works. As implied abovethe works of the Dada movement received greater attention, as didcollagists such as Robert Rauschenberg, whose works were initiallyconsidered unimportant in the context of the modernism of the 1950s, but who, bythe 1980 s, beganto be seen as seminal. Post-modernism also elevated the importance of cinema in artisticdiscussions, placing it on a peer level with the other fine arts. This is bothbecause of the blurring of distinctions between high andlow forms, and because of the recognition that cinema representedthe creation of simulacra which was later duplicated in the other arts. (Wikipedia,2005) Inthis dissertation, we shall be analyzing aspects of sensory theatre as has beenexplored and toyed with by some great artisans of the craft. Despite anyproblems we have with wholesale rejection of this type of theatre, in the interestof fair-minded and complete research, we shall pay due attention to theAristotelian school of thought. That which claims that theatre is a particulartype of experience, one from which the audience member should feel cleansed andhave learnt a lesson. This is a valid point of view, one which we shallthoroughly explore in order to see if it is indeed more artisticallyjustifiable than sensory theatre. Afterexploring Aristotles opinions, we shall look in further depth at the nature ofsensory theatre. What does this term mean? How is each sense tapped? Can themelding of experiences of several senses which are simultaneously stimulatedprovide an elevating experience? For this exploration, we shall use the casestudy of Dwr (water in Welsh), a sensory piece of theatre put on in2003, using water, light and various materials to explore reactions amongst itsaudience. The reasons for using this play are that it was an audiovisualexperience as well as a mere theatrical one as projections and cameras were anintegral part of the performance. Furthermore, the sensory effect of theaudience can be better analyzed as members of the audience were also used inthe play, their reactions helping to define the type of sensory experience. However, Dwr also gives us a good example of Brechtian theatre for the number of levels the play takes on. The actors themselves act as facilitators for the audience to receive personal sensory experiences. With only a minority of audience members taking part in the play, we can gain two further levels of emotional depth and complexity. The general background of the audience will see their emotions and senses assailed by the movements, gestures and decisions of those taking part while this minority will be subjected to sensory input and emit feedback with no room for forethought or planning ahead. Thus, we shall provide a very definite and interesting example to back up any clear defining of sensory theatre we come to. We shall also look at how Dwr fits into the patterns of sensory theatre created by Brecht and Artaud and how its attitude towards its audience defines this multi-tiered theatre as one of the crucial points of sensory theatre. However,no analysis of sensory theatre without detailed research into the works ofpioneers of the genre. Here, we have chosen to look at Bertolt Brecht andAntonin Artaud, each for specific reasons. Brechts attitude, utterly inconflict with the age-old Aristotelian views of theatre, helped build hisreputation as an agitateur who decided to stamp his own distinctive markupon an art form he viewed as static. Thus, the habits of Brechtian theatre oftotal acknowledgement of the audience caused as much mirth as it did anger. Onthe other hand, Artaud provided his audience with a completely integralexperience. By using sensory theatre to deny audience members their usual rightto involve themselves in a performance to a degree of their choice, Artaud madesure his plays would deeply shock his audiences. We will be exploring Artaudstechniques as well as his reasons for providing this kind of theatre. It is the goal of this dissertation to highlight the differences that make sensory theatre an integral genre of its own, containing so many outlets for creativity, expression and emotional impact as to make it not only an interesting part of theatre but an essential one. Its recent resurgence will thus provide us with an ideal platform from which to assess its meaning to a modern audience. TheAristotelian view of theatrical norms Goodoratory can blow the walls off brick buildings. Not just in the real world ofpolitical speeches or rallies but in the arts as well. As one of the only formsof human expression where no point of view is unheard, no eventuality unconsidered,no leaf left unturned, theatre has throughout its history naturally overthrownand shrugged off any shackles or conventions attached to it. This idea couldgive rise to an impression of mayhem and anarchy in an art form that had runaway with its own importance. As one of the leading figures in the history ofliterature, Aristotles views on the nature and importance of theatre arewell-documented and naturally thought of as still relevant today. Aristotlehad the very human characteristic of harking back to the good old days, andthinking them much better than the days in which he lived. Taking scant accountof Aeschylus,he regarded Sophoclesand Euripidesas models in tragedy. His chief complaints were that the poets of his own timespoiled their work by rhetorical display; that the actor was often of moreimportance than the play; and that the poets tampered with the plot in order togive a favorite actor an opportunity of displaying his special talent. He saidthat the poets were deficient in the power of portraying character, and that itwas not even fair to compare them with the giants of the former era. (FletcherBellinger, pp.61, 1967) However,in the matter of sensory theatre, we run into an area of some problems. Beingof a conservative mind-set which appreciated theatre for the moral lessonscontained within the narrative, Aristotle worshipped Sophocles with hisstraight and narrow approach to theatrical drama whilst eschewing the work ofhis contemporaries as being too popular, too watered down to meet the needs ofa public desirous of less preaching and more fun within the theatre. Aristotlepossessed perhaps what could be interpreted as a rather narrow view in that hesaw tragedy as the greatest form of dramatic expression, almost utterly passingoff on comedy as mere fluff as compared to tragedy with the great lessonscontained within it. Furthermore, Aristotle also considered tragedy to bemagnificent when it also contained a clear and well constructed narrativeframework and mythological references to the deeds of greater men and gods in anobler past. Although Aristotles writings on these topics did make a lot ofsense, they are considered somewhat restrictive and far too imbued with theirown authority to be seen as of much use today. After all, in a society wherethe possibilities of theatre are slowly catching up with those of television orcinema as directors, playwrights and stage designers are always exploring newavenues of performance, Aristotles three unities of time, place and actionseem ready to be retired. Their far-too stringent requirements of both cast andcrew make them almost impossible to operate in the modern world of freetheatre. This is no longer a society where the writings of one man, whoever he may be, carry enough influence to truly make as significant an impact as in Ancient Greece. It is not to say that Aristotle should be disregarded but concerning sensory theatre, rules relating how plot should be more important than character and how all the action in a tragedy should be centered around a personage of importance to better capture the attention of a fickle audience seem slightly moot. Its relevance is in the fact that much of what is known of theatrical conventions among a lay audience is heavily based on Ancient Greek theatrical philosophy, particularly Aristotle. It is precisely this philosophy that sensory theatre will have to overcome in order to claim its place as a rightful and deserving genre of theatrical achievement across the globe. Visual,auditory, tactileDwr Choosingan example to illustrate the nature of sensory theatre is a tricky balancingact as one must therefore, in some way at least, pre-define ones understandingof the genre. How do we choose between the senses? After all, since the name ofsensory theatre does not make any kind of distinction, do we consider thesenses of sight and hearing more important than the other three since they areoverwhelmingly the most stimulated in matters of theatre? A distinction such asthis would make sense certainly but since sensory theatre is often seen asstanding alone from usual theatre, perhaps it would be unfair to appraise itthanks to assumptions based on more conventional modes of theatre. Instead,the best way to gain a true idea of sensory theatres range of potentialimpacts would be to base an example upon several criteria. Firstly, although itwould be somewhat over-expectant to try and find a play which could tap allfive of our senses, several attempts at sensory theatre have successfullyenga ged audiences on three senses, if not four. Herein has been chosen Dwr,a Welsh piece put on in 2003 in Aberystwyth and then broadcast on S4C on thearts programme, Croma. Theset-up of the piece was simple. The audience were seated on one side of thestage on a raised-up area, overlooking a long perpendicular dinner table. Theinside of the table, rather than being an ordinary flat surface, had beenhollowed in order to form a shallow pool about six inches deep along thetables entire length. The pool was filled with a level amount of clear waterat the bottom of which a table had been set ready for dinner, complete withplates, cutlery, glasses and napkins. Above the audience, shining down upon thetable was a strong projector which reflected the pool of water onto a backprojection screen in a way which magnified and increased the shadows cast byany ripples in the water. Six audience members were asked to be seated at thetable, as if for dinner before being submitted to a range of experiences by theactors whilst cameras recorded their reactions. These sensory experiments allinvolved stimulation of an audience member in matters of sight, sound, taste orfeelin g. We shall look at the manner in which each of these senses was tappedas well as Dwrs technical set-up. Firstof all, if one were to ask any theatre-goers, it would be certain that even themost intermittent of these would claim the two most stimulated senses in thetheatre are that of sight and hearing. Whilst conventional thinking would allowthis to be true, a cynical perspective would add that since our behinds orfeet, depending on posture, contribute much to the enjoyment of a theatricalperformance three senses, not two, must all be satisfied for a performance tobe considered praise-worthy. After all, although stage design is an oftforgotten art among those who are not privileged to the inner workings oftheatre, the choice of venue often signifies how an audience will feel duringthe performance. Stage design is often considered only in terms of sets, propsand technical apparatus whilst the idea of crowd comfort is often overlooked. In the case of Dwr, the crowd comfort was adequate but the truly interesting phenomenon for the audience of this play was that their peers were submitted to the action contained within it. The stage design was such that the light poured onto the water was bright enough to cause the right amount of shadow reflection whilst not blinding either the audience or the actors. This careful use of projection in order to achieve the desired effect was a technique made famous of Josef Svoboda who pioneered the use of audiovisual projection in theatre to enhance the general experience. The stimulation capabilities of a performance, when combined with camera and sound equipment, is vastly heightened thus cementing Svoboda as one of the great names of sensory theatre. Asfar as the audience members who became a part of the performance itself, thesenses stimulated were done so in a way which gave every sense the time tofully absorb the impact of its experience. First of all, each audience memberwas seated at the table in the guise of a dinner guest but asked not to talk toeach other or carry out any action except if indicated to do so by one of thesurrounding cast. First of all, each dinner guest was asked to remove theirshoes and socks before climbing onto the table into the water. The stage itselfwas kept at a warm temperature in contrast to the cold water, making the changein surroundings quite drastic. Then, the audience member was asked to burst aplastic bag full of water with a long hooked pole. The water would thus droponto the audience member along with a fake plaster egg. The audience member would then be lead back to their seat, given a towel to dry off before being given two chopsticks. After breaking the egg on the side of the table, the contents would then be spilt onto the plate just below the surface of the water. Each egg contained some food coloring, spreading across the table along with the ripples, along with a small piece of paper. Each piece of paper showed the face of a man, wearing different emotions, whilst a brief poem on the back seemed to explain the expression, a poem that would be read by one of the surrounding cast to the relevant audience member. The relationship between the pictures and the poems may not have been immediately obvious but the reactions of the audience members were still assured to be both personal, if not natural due to unusual surroundings and odd experiences. These reactions were filmed by the technical crew on video cameras, adding another level of complexity to the performance as the traditional boundaries between cast and crew become blurred. Furthermore, Dwrs entire performance was played out under a constantly shifting pattern of music which although always instrumental would speed up in tone or gently slow down in function of events happening in the play. Thepurpose of using Dwr as an illustration of the modern applications ofsensory theatre and its meaning to a present-day audience is threefold. Firstof all, the timing of the piece and its broadcasting on a national channelalong with subsequent interviews with the chosen audience members proves theinterest placed in it by a major broadcaster as the BBC has major impact uponS4C scheduling. Secondly, the sensual experience of the show provided afascinating outlet for the audience members, both for those who took an activepart or a passive part, to find out more about what constitutes modern sensorytheatre. Although the audience numbers for this show were relatively small and thus can only provide us with a minor cross-section of theatre-goers, the positive feedback gained at the end during the interviews can give a lot of hope as to the future of sensory theatre. Finally, to use an example such as Dwr gives us a view as to what kind of reaction this genre of theatre would meet with. Dwr covers a broad base of sensory theatre as its performance, not only stimulating several of the senses themselves, dealt with a range of theatrical theories and ideologies which we shall look at in further detail. By separating audience members from each other, creating many layers of reality between crew and cast, audience and cast and audience and crew, Dwr rejectedmany traditional aspects of theatrical performance. However, by engaging its audience/cast members with an individual experience through the messages contained within the eggshells and filming their response, Dwr could be said to have engaged with a more conservative Aristotelian version of theatre. Each audience member not involved with the show directly as a dinner guest will have experience the play as a visual and auditive experience but it is for the six members of the audience at each performance that Dwr transcended the limits of ordinary theatre and became a emotional and sensory journey felt by each in their own individual way. Below, we will be casting an eye at the ways in which theatrical pioneers such as Brecht and Artaud tackled the rigours and the conventions of an art form that they viewed as being a free form, lacking in any structural restrictions. Before doing so, we can still observe that even if Dwr did pander even the slightest bit towards an Aristotelian theatre, the main body of its performance was firmly in the territory of Artaud as we can see when applying this passage to precisely the type of theatre Dwr tries to avoid. If people are out of thehabit of going to the theater, if we have all finally come to think of theateras an inferior art, a means of popular distraction, and to use it as an outletfor our worst instincts, it is because we have learned too well what thetheater has been, namely, falsehood and illusion. It is because we have beenaccustomed for four hundred years, that is since the Renaissance, to a purelydescriptive and narrative theater storytelling psychology; it is becauseevery possible ingenuity has been exerted in bringing to life on the stageplausible but detached beings, with the spectacle on one side, the public onthe other and because the public is no longer shown anything but the mirrorof itself. Shakespeare himself is responsible for this aberration and decline,this disinterested idea of the theater which wishes a theatrical performance toleave the public intact, without setting off one image that will shake theorganism to its foundations and leave an ineffaceable scar. If, in Shakespeare,man is sometimes preoccupied with what transcends him, it is always in order todetermine the ultimate consequences of this preoccupation within him, i.e.,psychology. (Artaud,No More Masterpieces, 1976) Evensuch divides as between audience and actors, theatrical conventions that are sohabitual as to often be altogether forgotten, were not sacrosanct enough fordirectors, playwrights and actors such as Brecht, Artaud and Svoboda. TheBrechtian impact or the alienation of theatrical tradition Earlierin this dissertation, it was suggested that Aristotles views on theatre andsubsequent impact thereon had diminished somewhat with the dawn of a time wherethe philosophies of the Ancient Greeks mattered little. However, the centuriesthat his views transcended have signified that they could not dissipate soquickly. Many modern opinions on theatre, however avant-garde or post-modernistthey wish or claim to be, are still formed largely on the back of the opinionsof men such as Aristotle. However, this obstacle would be taken to piece by menand women like Brecht, who wished not to merely co-exist with existing viewsbut confront their defenders and destroy the ideological entrenchment that manytheatre critics had resorted to in the face of the changes sweeping throughtheir beloved art form. In his early plays, Brechtexperimented with dada and expressionism, but in his later work, he developed astyle more suited his own unique vision. He detested theAristotelian drama and its attempts to lure the spectator into akind of trance-like state, a total identification with the hero to the point ofcomplete self-oblivion, resulting in feelings of terror and pity and,ultimately, an emotional catharsis. He didnt want his audience to feelemotionshe wanted them to thinkand towards this end, he determined todestroy the theatrical illusion, and, thus, that dull trance-like state he sodespised. The result of Brechts research was a technique known asverfremdungseffekt or the alienation effect. It wasdesigned to encourage the audience to retain their critical detachment. (Imagi-nation,2003) Thisis not to say though that to achieve such an accomplishment was possible formerely any theatrical commentator. It took men of special gumption, gravitasand guts to dare attack such a powerful establishment as that of traditionaltheatre. Bertolt Brecht was one of these. Blessed with the ability to fightbattles on several fronts whilst still maintaining a clear head, Brecht beganto cause controversy early on in his career. Looking to fulfill a desire formore relevant and modern theatre amongst German theatre-going audiences,Brecht, through plays such as Drums in the Night and with therecognition of director Erich Engel, flirted with an expressionistic style thatbefitted his rising status but left Brecht himself feeling uncomfortable.Although his style was becoming fashionable and it would undoubtedly havebrought him his time in the spotlight, Brecht felt that he should discover aplaywriting identity which was his own and not borrowed from anybody else. Ifwe consider that at this ti me Brecht was writing in post World War I Germany,we can observe the bravery it must have taken for him to make this type ofdecision. Duringthe turbulent years of the socialist rise in Germany and the Weimar Republic,Brecht knew a modest amount of success in both theatre and literature thanks toplays such as In the Jungle of the Cities and his partnership with Engeland Hans Eisler but he was only just beginning to find his feet in a style allof his own. The final step in this direction would be his years with his owncollective of writers, the most famous fruit of which would be the Lehrstuckewhich would form the root of the theatrical changes and theories we thinkof as Brechtian today. Lehrstucke propounded that passive audiences werea thing of the past in matters of theatre and that it was necessary foraudiences to become more actively involved in a performance whilst keeping astrong level of emotional distance in order to remain capable of rational thoughtand criticism. This collection of thoughts would slowly pass into commonpractice in theatrical troupes and communities around the world, a practiceknown as epic theatre. Epictheatre today may seem as historical and passÃÆ'ÂÂ © as Aristotles views did forBrecht but the truth is that the numerous and varied adaptations of epictheatre have formed much of todays common theatrical practices. Before Brecht,the demarcation between the audience and the actors was sacrosanct. SinceAristotle, the status of the star actor had risen so much that now actors wouldmerely be cast in a role that was known to be in their repertoire, a fact whichcould lead to truly spectacular levels of diva treatment or ridiculouscastings. Take for example Sarah Bernhardt whose notoriety had reached suchproportions that she cast herself as Hamlet. This is not to say there isanything wrong with female actors playing traditionally male Shakespeareanparts but it is the manner in which Bernhardt carried out this casting that madethe situation ridiculous. Aristotle lamented this type of situation as beingone of the great plagues striking tragedy theatre whilst Brecht merely laughedat it and lambasted it in his own style. His patented Verfremdungseffekt (or estrangement effect) was a sweepingly original style which not only acknowledged the audience as a part of a theatrical production and encouraged them to change their own attitudes to theatre. Instead of allowing traditional suspension of disbelief and letting audiences feel as if they were watching a truthful event, Brecht went out of his way to remind them that what they saw was a representation, a mirror onto reality and never reality itself. This was carried out by having actors suddenly break character and address the audience to explain the plot, grossly over-exaggerated props or sets in the middle of an otherwise serious play or great placards on the stage asking the audience to behave in a certain way by ignoring a particular happening or to stare less romantically. These unusual situations for an audience confused them and alienated them from the play, hence the name alienation or estrangement effect. This separation from conventional thea trical theory became very fashionable after the war in both America where he lived until being pestered by HUAC and in communist East Germany where he resided until his death in 1953. The appeal of Brechts type of theatre across the globe speaks volumes about how the traditions of theatre were rejected by a large section of theatre going audiences. The sensory feel of the Verfremdungseffekt were indirect but by creating this new separation of audience and stage in an allegorical as well as in a physical sense, Brechtian theatre enabled its audiences and directors to experiment with new sensations. The greatest example of this is in some of Brechts later plays such as The Good Person of Szechwan and Galileo. For example, in Galileo, the portrait he paints of the astronomer is of a tortured soul wracked between his scientific duty to tell the truth to an unsuspecting world and the threat of vengeance from the dark figure of the Grand Inquisitor. This moral dilemma was planned by Brecht as a way to get his audience to think rationally about the situation and contemplate what they would do in such a situation rather than feeling sorry for Galileo. However, if Brecht had one failing, it was that despite his ability to meld together a myriad of sources into a convincing single narrative, he did not understand the human nature of his public. Persuaded that with the right play, he could force his audience into abandoning their emotional side, whether he realized it or not Brecht was asking people to set aside the precise reason most of them came to the theatre. His theories resulted in a number of epic dramas, among them Mother Courage and Her Children which tells the story of a travelling merchant who earns her living by following the Swedish and Imperial armies with her covered wagon and selling them supplies: clothing, food, brandy, etc As the war grows heated, Mother Courage finds that this profession has put her and her children in danger, but the old woman doggedly refuses to give up her wagon. Mother Courage and Her Children was both a triumph and a failure for Brecht. Although the play was a great success, he never managed to achieve in his audience the unemotional, analytical response he desired. Audiences never fail to be moved by the plight of the stubborn old woman. (Imagi-nation, 2003) Anemotional journey where characters could and should be empathized with orcondemned was much of what has always constituted theatres engagement. Eventhe averagely smart and aware audience member does not need the moral absolutesof right and wrong as claimed by Aristotle but the desire to identify with oneor more of the central characters instead of merely rationalizing about theirfates without feeling was too strong in the vast majority of theatre-goers. Brechtis claimed doubly to be both a modernist or one of the first post-modernists.Although some claims have been made that a taste for his kind of theatre quicklyinspires in the face of so much cynicism, his importance and the size of hisimpact upon world theatre cannot be underplayed. Today, many of his conventionsare so common as to be taken for granted whilst a collective of Brechtiansstill operates and remains as long-standing proof to the glory of his genius. Conventionalrelief in theatre and Artauds rejection of it Everygeneration is locked in a perpetual struggle with those that come both beforeand after to break free from the shackles of their ancestral traditions, carvetheir own identity and thus prepare the way for a similar fight with thegenerations that are to follow. Although social morays may seem to remain stilland constant, this is only an illusion, one that can only too easily be piercedby artistic expression. Artists have often been marginalized as second-ratemembers of society, ones that are not indispensable to the everyday running ofour lives. Seen as not producing useful since all their efforts did not feed,clothe or warm anybody, it became a painful reality that if actors or musicianswanted to survive, they were required to curtail any creativity and pander toprecisely what their audiences desired. While this unfortunate turn of events could be passed off as a mere passage in the history of theatre, it left behind some highly tell-tale signs. The simplest of these is that from the Renaissance onward through the Classical period, theatre had become significant with escapism. The majority of plays, and here one cannot deny Aristotles continuing influence, harked back to former days lamenting a fallen age of glory, honour and noble deeds. Whilst this fond reminiscing was unimpeachable in its desire to awaken a better side of humanity in audiences, it often met with boredom and