Thursday, October 31, 2019

Investigate plagiarism at the undergraduate level Essay

Investigate plagiarism at the undergraduate level - Essay Example There is an uptick in the incidences of plagiarism. Therefore, there is a high need of action to eradicate this trend. An essential part of fighting against plagiarism is to teach students the skills to legally and ethically use the sources, so they do not unintentionally step into the plagiarism territory. One of the major excuses for escaping the accusation of plagiarism is that it was unintentional. Regardless if a student intentionally or unintentionally copied someone elses work, either way, it falls under the category of plagiarized work. When researchers refer to someone elses work it means that it was someone elses idea so merrily changing the words does not absolve students from this academic misconduct. It is vital to learn the background of plagiarism to comprehend the exact problem. Textual ownership refers to the thoughts and phrasings that are someone elses property and using them without attributing them back to the owner would be equivalent to committing an academic crime known as plagiarism. Many young students find it difficult to use information that belongs to others into their work (Diane, 2013). Paraphrasing, quoting, or any other form of incorporations such as through diagrams, figures and flowcharts, are some of the means through which students commit this crime intentionally and unintentionally. The studies on plagiarism and cheating have mostly been conducted through student questionnaire, which reveals that there is a strong moral base for students about friendship and good learning. It means that some punishable behavior might be regarded as justifiable, and some officially approved behavior is deemed dubious (Ashworth, Bannister, Thorne & Students, 2006). Studies also suggest that students are often unclear as to what constitutes as plagiarism and what the correct forms of paraphrasing are (Roig, 1997). The

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Read the article, and answer the question Assignment

Read the article, and answer the question - Assignment Example Personal power arises due to individual knowledge or expertise, which an individual possesses and can act with authority due to this know how. Formal power can either be reward, legitimate, coercive or information (Dillard 27). Coercive power involves infliction of fear to an individual, with threats such as low pay, to get a person to act in a premeditated manner. Reward power is opposite of coercive, and it involves promises of positive rewards for compliance with certain conduct. An individual in a position to distribute such rewards is viewed to have power over others. Legitimate power arises in formal organisation structure, representing the power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy. Information power stems from a person control over information, which other organizational members do not have (Dillard 29-45). Personal power can either be expert, referent or charismatic. Expert power is a powerful source of influence, which stems from possession of a special skill, or knowledge. Referent power arises where people want to associate with an individual who has immerse resources, and as result, such an individual can exercise power over them. Charismatic power streams from an individual personality and interpersonal style, such that other people exercises follower sensitivity over such an individual (Dillard 34-47). Manager objectives in exercising power over different generations of a Company are to achieve set goals. Kate admits that 20 years ago, legitimate power had greater influence, because all she did was tell people what to do, and they executed without resistance. She points out that in the contemporary business environment, negotiations and influence plays a significant role in managing employees. This can be attributed to personal power, because expertise power is the most influential power

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Solar Energy Sector In India General Studies Essay

Solar Energy Sector In India General Studies Essay India with abundant sunlight, unutilized manufacturing potential, readily available labour and significant demand for power, is one of the most promising markets for solar energy. The country is currently the seventh largest producer solar photovoltaic (PV) cells and ninth largest producer of solar thermal energy. Most parts of the country receive 4-7 kWh of solar radiation per square meter per day. There are 250-300 clear, sunny days in a year. This puts countrys solar potential at around 600TW per year. Still, solar energy is not the most popular source of renewable energy in India. Wind at 9,522 MW, continues to dominate the renewable energy sector , accounting for over 70% of total renewable capacity of 13,451 MW as of Sept, 2008. This sectoral report tries to cover the niche sector of solar energy in India which is still in nascent stage with very few detailed reports available. The sectoral report covers the size and growth of this sector various government initiatives taken to ensure the growth momentum considering the fact that solar power is still quite costly as compared to conventional sources of power. Thereafter the various key success parameters in the form of various issues challenges which decides the growth in this sector are covered like managing high cost, policy hurdles, environmental concerns, low land availability, power evacuation hurdles, profitability problems, entry barriers for new manufacturing facilities etc. Next the key enablers to sustainable success of solar energy sector in the form of technological innovations is discussed based on various factors. Here the focus is on various upcoming technologies in the solar sector like crystalline silicon, thin film, solar thermal/ CSP etc . Sectoral Report also give a brief overview of the key initiatives in the solar sector taken by a company which made it a leading company in solar sector. Finally the growth projection for the solar sector as a whole is being highlighted. Size and Growth of Solar energy sector in India The government of India started focusing on the solar energy segment when Ministry of New and renewable Energy (MNRE) launched a countrywide solar PV programme as a part of its renewable energy programme. It aimed to provide remote village electrification through decentralized distributed generation(DDG) using solar technologies and promote such technologies for urban, industrial and commercial applications. India has since transformed into a low cost hub for manufacturing solar PV cells and modules, a large proportion of which is exported to other countries. For instance, according to a 2008 study on solar PV industry by Indian Semiconductor Association, India produced 335 MWp of PV products during the period 2002-07 of which 225 MWp was exported. The annual production of solar PV cells increased from 9.5 MW in March 2000 to 110 MW in March 2000. The production of solar PV modules grew from 11 MW to 135 MW over the same period. In 1982, the government launched the national solar thermal energy programme to promote solar technologies such as parabolic troughs, parabolic dishes and solar power towers for generating grid-interactive power. The programme involved increasing awareness about the use of solar thermal energy as well as encouraging the manufacture of solar thermal equipment. The government even subsidized solar thermal products like water heating systems and solar cookers. Since then, Indias solar thermal energy collector area (a solar thermal collector absorbs sunlight to convert it into heat energy) has increased significantly from 119,000 square metres to over 1.66 million square metres as of March 2007. However the number of solar thermal installations (comprising parabolic troughs, parabolic dishes and solar towers) per 1000 people is still very low at 0.52. The MNRE has targeted installing 5 million square metres of collector area by 2012. In terms of end-use, there was area of solar water heating systems and 0.62 million box-type solar cooker units as of Dec, 2007. Recent government initiatives In June 2008, the prime minister launched the National Action Plan for Climate change (NPACC), which categorically targets an increase in solar based generation in country. As part of the plan, the government has approved the creation of national solar mission on the lines of the Atomic Commission. The mission has a target of adding 1000 MW of concentrated solar power in the next 10 years. Also as part of governments plan for solar energy segment is the launch of a major research and development programme which would enable the creation of more affordable and convenient solar power systems, and promote innovations for storing solar power for sustained, long term use. International cooperation would be an important part of RD programme. The US government recently sent a delegation including fourteen US-based solar energy companies on its first trade mission on solar energy in India. Till date the union government has made various concessions for solar energy development in India. The MNRE in an effort to promote large sized grid-interactive solar power generation projects, recently introduced a generation based incentive (GBI) of Rs 15 per kWh for solar PV and Rs 13 per kWh for solar thermal projects. Solar PV power generation plants with minimum installed capacity of 1 MWp per plant are eligible for the incentive. However, the incentive is available only for maximum cumulative capacity of 10 MWp of grid-interactive solar PV power generation projects in a single state, with the overall project size being limited to 50 MWp. Further, no single entity can achieve GBI for projects of more than 5 MW. The industry has been demanding the removal of the total capacity and per plant limits but, so far , no steps have been taken by the government in this regard. The government has also sanctioned the Development of Solar Cities Programme for the Eleventh Plan Period. The programme will extend support to municipal corporations for preparing and implementing the plan to set up 60 solar cities at investment of Rs 5million, which will enable a minimum of 10 per cent reduction in total demand conventional energy by 2012. The Forum of Electricity Regulators, headed by the Chairperson of the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission, is working on the road map to achieving the NAPCCs target of sourcing 5% of total power generation from renewable sources. Key Success Parameter for Solar Sector Growth: Handling Issues Challenges Despite these efforts, the solar industry still faces a plethora of issues including high production costs, lack of land, inadequate financing options and rising environment concerns. Moreover, despite the government offering many incentives, the industry is demanding more in order to be commercially viable. Policy Hurdles According to project developers, further policy action is required on the solar energy front. There is still a cloud of confusion surrounding the policy framework. Developers have cited issues as lack of clarity regarding the clearances required to set up operations. Others complain that it takes excessive time to obtain the multiple clearances required. Many developers have also faced problems with state governments as the latter have not adhered to the power purchase agreements. There is also strong demand for removing the cap on MNREs GBI. High Costs Despite costs coming down over the years, power generation from solar PV is still four to five time more expensive than fossil fuel-based generation. The estimated cost of generation from solar PV and solar thermal sources in India is Rs 12-20 per KWh and Rs 10-15 per KWh respectively. On the other hand, power from conventional sources can cost as little as Rs 3-4 per KWh. According to industry estimates, the current tariffs for initial 10-year period are not sufficient to make solar projects viable. This combined with project financing at 12-14 per cent with a loan tenor of seven-eight years result in internal rate of return (IRRs) of 6-10 %. Attractive IRRs have been the single most important factor for growth for the solar PV industry in Europe, with developers receiving at least an incremental return of 4-6 per cent over the capital/ financing cost. Several factors have contributed to this trend. With respect to crystalline solar PV-based power production, one of the most significant cost components is the high cost of energy, which constitutes around 11% of the total production cost (for a vertical integrated plant). Energy costs borne by solar power developers in India are especially high as industrial consumers are typically charged higher energy tariff to cross subsidize domestic and agricultural consumers. Interest cost and depreciation are two other important cost components, comprising 15% of production cost. According to a presentation by Rajeewa Arya, Chief Executive Officer, Mosaer Baer Photo Voltaic , project financing for solar power developers is usually granted at an interest rate of 12-14% for a loan tenor of seven-eight years, making solar PV projects ‘unviable. Thin film based solar PV technology is a cheaper alternative to mono or polysilicon based solar PV technologies as it costs less to manufacture thin film modules. Thin film modules are created by coating entire sheets of glass or steel with thin layers of semiconducting materials, which obviates the need for large quantities of semiconductors, thus lowering energy inputs and, consequently, the cost of production. With thin film modules, there is also added opportunity of locally sourcing raw material. The current cost structure of thin film silicon-based modules varies from Rs 50 to Rs 64per watt peak (Wp) depending on the efficiency (6 to 8.5%) of the module compared to Rs 88.7per Wp for silicon crystalline modules. Entry Barrier against Competitors for Manufacturing Process Solar PV cell manufacturing is a technology-intensive process requiring sophisticated expertise and know how. The technological landscape is changing rapidly. Moreover, as it is challenging for new entrants to replicate the success of companies having a long standing in solar PV market, competition is reduced to an extent. Environmental Concerns Some of the raw materials used for producing solar PV cells, like cadmium , are hazardous. Other raw materials, like plastics are non-biodegradable. Although some of the wasted generated during the manufacturing process is recyclable (for example silicon), not all materials are recyclable . As a result disposal is challenge. Low Land availability Solar Power plants require large areas of land 35-40 acres for a 5 MWp installation. However suitable tracts of land are not always available and land acquisition is sometimes subjected to local resistance. Power Evacuation In the past, it has been often seen that a transmission line is required to be drawn from solar power plant site to the nearest substation, which is usually 4-5 Km away. The concerned power utilities generally insist the line be drawn by the promoter of solar project. Setting up a transmission line is not only unfamiliar work for solar project promoters or engineering, procurement and construction contractor , it also adds substantially to the capital costs incurred. For conventional power plants, the respective transmission or distribution companies set up the line and purchases power from premises of the generating station. This is because TD companies have the experience and legal support to tackle socio-political issues that arises while setting up transmission lines across land owned by multiple landowners. Profitability In addition to raw material and project financing costs, Indian solar PV manufacturing companies face the problem of achieving profitability, as most companies are partially integrated. This means that they either buy wafers and convert them into cells , or buy cells and convert them into modules. In the value chain, 60% of value addition lies in the polysilicon and wafer manufacturing segments. In India, however cell and module manufacturing is largely carried out domestically, leaving polysilicon and wafers to be imported. This leads to a substantial loss in margins, increases the cost of the solar panel, and thereby increases the cost of the energy generated from solar power. If it is assumed that both the partially integrated manufacturer and vertically integrated manufacturer can sell the module at around Rs 145( based on international pricing of a crystalline silicon module), this gives the vertically integrated manufacturer a margin gain of 42 percentage points over the partially integrated one. There are however , several technical limitations as a result of which partial integration is more feasible than vertical integration. These include unavailability of technology and raw material. A key reason for this is high capital requirement for setting up such manufacturing capacities. In light of this , capital subsidies could boost vertical integration and reduce cost of production. Solar Thermal Advantages of Solar Thermal Power Solar Thermal power exhibits a different set of dynamics from solar PV as energy storage is much easier in the former. Solar thermal power plants have systems for heat storage and , consequently , generate power even after sunset . Solar thermal technologies have the additional advantages of being able to generate electricity right after the construction of collector (in other technologies, there is usually a gap between plant construction and production of electricity , which increases the interest cost to investment made). Limitations of Solar Thermal Technology On the flip side, however the technology has two key limitations. First, while PV systems can be installed in proximity to customers , thereby decreasing transmission and distribution costs, concentrated solar thermal systems require optimal solar conditions and large open spaces, which are only available at a great distance from customers. The second reason, as is explained in a report by McKinsey Consulting, â€Å"The ability of concentrated solar thermal power to cut costs further may be limited because it relies on conventional devices such as pipes and reflectors whose costs will probably fall less significantly than those of materials used in semiconductor-based PVs†. Issues Challenges- Going Forward Overall, solar energy costs can be expected to decrease significantly in the future. Capital costs have already declined over the past two decades, bringing down the cost of solar PV and solar thermal. Costs are projected to continue reducing to eventually compete with fossil fuel prices. With economies of scale and development of new technologies, the industry is targeting to achieve a level of Rs6-8 per kWh in three to five years. Analysts have further advocated that developers undertake cost cutting measures such as sharing operational resources, and building the plant closer to consumers to save on transmission expenses etc. Moreover, a carbon tax on coal based generation could provide a significant boost to CSP technology. Breakthroughs in nanotechnology also promises a significant increase in solar cell efficiencies from current values of around 15% to over 50%, which could subsequently reduce the cost of the solar energy produced. Key Success Enabler for Sustainable Growth in Solar: Growth in Technological Innovations Crystalline silicon The development of crystalline silicon technology took shape in 1976 when the government launched a five year programme focusing on indigenous commercial production of solar cells and modules based on crystalline silicon. Advantages of Crystalline Silicon Crystalline silicon technologies have several advantages. They are tried and tested and relatively more widely available in the Indian market, thus familiarity among groups and producers. Consequently, most applications for solar PV use have been designed on the basis of silicon-based PV characteristics. The technology also has relatively high conversion efficiencies of 15 to 18% for the polycrystalline versions and 17-18% for the monocrystalline version. Hence, they are ideal for locations with space constraints as the size of the panels need not be very large. Issues with Crystalline Silicon On the flip side , however , crystalline solar PV technologies are heavily dependent on pure solar grade silicon which has limited supply. Though accessing high quality of sand for manufacturing silicon is not a constraint in India, production of refined metallurgical silicon is costly , complicated and energy intensive. Crystalline technologies are also expensive, costing $2.4 and $2.15 to produce a 1 Watt monocrystalline and polycrystalline cell respectively. Crystalline technologies consume 8-9 grams of silicon per watt. However, silicon is a scarce commodity in India and these costs end up constituting a large part (40-50%) of the module costs. Over the years though, silicon usage in crystalline technologies (in terms of grams per watt) is expected to reduce. Future outlook of Crystalline Silicon The future of crystalline silicon technologies will be driven by technological advances that will establish new benchmarks in solar PV cell efficiency using materials that can trap a higher proportion of incident spectrum and convert it into useful energy and reduce cost by developing less energy intensive techniques of production and benefiting from decreasing polysilicon prices , and reduces waste. In the future, though other emerging technologies are likely to gain prominence , industry experts expect that solar PV systems based on crystalline silicon will dominate the off-grid applications segment with small rooftop-based installations. Though crystalline technologies monopolize the solar PV market at present, they are expected to slowly be replaced by more cost-effective technologies such as those based on thin film. By 2011-12 , the market share of silicon crystalline is expected to decline to 65-70%. Thin Film Thin film-based solar PV technology is a low cost alternative to crystalline silicon. The market share of thin film technologies currently stands at around 8% but is expected to go up to 35%in the next few years in India. In contrast to silicon crystalline technologies, thin films are expected to be especially important for on-grid applications in India Advantages of using Thin Film The key advantage of thin-film technologies is that they are more cost effective than other crystalline-based solar PV technologies as they require fewer materials and energy. Issues with Thin Film However thin film-based technologies are still at research and evolution stage and have relatively lower conversion efficiency compared to silicon crystalline technologies. There are other future challenges. Although thin film technologies have revealed long-term stability, some degradation has been observed. This is yet to be properly understood and dealt with. Moreover, in the long term , the availability and price of tellurium ( a key raw material in the production of thin films) are likely to become a bigger concern when the production capacity level reaches tens of gigawatts. Solar thermal/ CSP In addition to solar PV, solar thermal technology is also gaining traction in India. For on-grid applications, concentrated solar power (CSP) systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. This technology is commercially available with over 12 billion units of operation experience. The one drawback it faces is its use of an oil based heat transfer medium, which restricts operating temperature to up to 400 C , resulting in stream of moderate quality. This technology is again suited for grid connected plants but with high temperature process heat requirement. The highest capacity achieved until now for a single unit with this technology is 10 MWe. This technology is ideally suited for stand-alone, off-grid power systems or clustered to larger grid-connected dish parks. The highest single unit solar capacity achieved with this technology is 25 kWe. In some recent designs, a unit size of about 10 kWe has been claimed. However projected mass production goals and costs are yet to be achieved. Status of Solar Thermal in India The cumulative collector area of solar thermal thermal energy in India has grown steadily from 119,000 sq metres in 1989 to more than 2.6 million square metres in December,2008. Though this is substantial increment , the absolute number of solar thermal installations per 1000 people is very low at 0.52. In terms of end-use, there are 2.6 million square metres of collector area of solar water heating systems and 640,000 box-type solar cooker units as of January, 2009. Issues with spread of Solar Thermal The key disadvantage with all concentrated solar power systems is that the hours of power production coincide theoretically with hours of sunshine. However, with some adaptations , such as energy storage , it is possible to control the hours of power production. According to the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy , India has a gross potential of about 30 million square meters of collector area. In fact , in its draft policy , it has target of installing 5 million square metres of collector area till 2012. However, given the current status, a lot of distance is yet to be covered. However there are several key issues that needs to be addressed. Solar thermal power developers have to incur a high initial cost of equipment. Solar thermal equipment also requires a large quantity of space compared to conventional electric equipment. Currently , the number of equipment suppliers, spare part manufacturers and service providers for solar thermal equipment is limited. According to industry players , there is an urgent need for developing supply chain that can bring efficiencies to the system , from design to delivery. Concentrated Solar PV systems In order to tackle the above challenges, the industry is experimenting with concentrated solar PV-based systems, which use mirrors or lenses to focus light onto solar PV cells to produce electricity. This is in contrast to concentrated solar power using parabolic troughs or dishes that use heat from sun to produce steam, which turns an electric generator. Concentrated solar PV systems are so far at an experimental stage. Spanish firm Solfocus is working on a 3 MW concentrated solar PV power plant in southern part of the country. Future Growth Projections of Technological innovations in solar Substantial research is being undertaken to come out with more cost-efficient and conversion-efficient versions of solar power technologies. Researchers are targeting conversion efficiencies between 30% to 60% , while using similar low-cost materials and manufacturing techniques. In the solar PV field, new and emerging technologies are being designed to overcome the shortcomings of thin film such as poor electrical performance while maintaining low production costs. New solar cells made of nano materials are reportedly the next big advancement in the solar PV industry. Nano materials exhibit superior properties , such as high strength and flexibility , and trap more energy than conventional solar PV cells. Leading Companies in Solar Sector Applied Materials Inc.: Key success factors Future Growth projections Applied materials creates and commercializes nanomanufacturing technology that helps produce virtually every semiconductor chip and liquid crystal flat panel display in the world. Applied materials built on that expertise to enter PV cell manufacturing equipment industry and become the number one supplier in 2008 (Source: VLSI Research, Inc.) For crystalline silicon, they have the best-in-class tools with a focus on thinnest wafers , highest productivity and higher efficiency . The Precision Wafering System division offers MaxEdge â„ ¢ using the dual wire concept to enable cutting large loads with thin wire along with wire saw systems for cropping and squaring. The Baccini â„ ¢cell division offers the industry-leading solution in line metallization and test that can handle ultra-thin wafers. Further the companys Aton â„ ¢ offers the highest productivity and cost benefits for ARC deposition and passivation in cell manufacturing. For the thin film market, Applied has developed the SunFabâ„ ¢ Thin Film production line , the worlds first line capable of producing 5.7 square meter solar modules. As PV manufacturers seek to build highly automated , efficient plants, Applied Materials ability to commercialize innovative solar technologies and its unmatched global resources and service network bring the promise of a cleaner, brighter energy future. Future Growth Projections in Solar Energy Sector According to analysts and financial consultants, there may be temporary slowdown in the solar energy sector due to the current economic crisis. Funds have become restricted and companies are looking for safer investments. However the situation is going to turn around with increased government focus. According to industry estimates, the total annual demand for solar energy (including solar thermal systems) in India will rise from current 30-40 MW to 700 MW by 2012 due to falling costs of solar systems. The MNRE is targeting a solar energy capacity of 500 MW by the end of the eleventh plan period. However, this target is expected to be surpassed. By 2017, the MNRE expects Indias solar capacity addition is expected to rise from current 30-40 MW per annum to 70 MW by 2012, driven by decreases in the prices of solar PV. Around 50% of capacity addition is expected to come from solar PV based grid-interactive generation. Solar based generation for the grid is expected to be 25 MW, 50 MW, 75 MW and 100 MW in 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012. The increase will be partially drawn by generation based incentive, which has already led to companies such as Reliance Industries and Moser Baer expressing interest in setting up grid-interactive solar PV plants worth over 1000 MW. All in all , the Indian solar energy industry is looking at busy times ahead. List of References: Datamonitor- Online Library Resources multiple news related to solar power sector Based on Three years of work-experience in power sector related industry contacts Study of various textbooks literature regarding solar energy while I was doing Post Graduate diploma course in Thermal Power Plant engg from an institute under ministry of Power

Friday, October 25, 2019

Henry II :: European Europe History

Henry II Defend or disagree this statement: "Henry was little more than a child himself, therefore he was a weak and ineffectual king." I disagree with this statement. Henry II defeated Stephen of Blois's armies in 1153 and compelled the king to choose him as his successor. Upon Stephen's death in 1154, Henry II became king at the age of twenty-one. His energy was equaled only by his ambition and intelligence. Henry II survived wars, rebellion, and controversy to successfully rule one of the Middle Ages' most powerful kingdoms. During his reign Henry II instituted important judicial reforms, establishing a centralized system of justice. He began the process of replacing the old trial by ordeal with modern court procedures. Henry II is considered the father of the English law system and many of his practices are still followed today. Henry II ruled a kingdom that stretched from the Scottish border to the Pyrenees. He refined Norman government and created a capable, self-standing bureaucracy. These are not the acts of a weak child , but of a powerful and most effective kings. 2. Who was the smarter of the two, Henry or Thomas? How do you know? Offer evidence to back up your answer. I believe that Henry II and Thomas were both intelligent men, and both played a large part in shaping history. I do believe that Thomas became a man of integrity and kept his priorities straight in his allegiance to both his country and his Church. When the two came in conflict, he correctly chose to obey the Church. He stood up for what he believed and more than that he stood up for God. He is an example for all, he did not compromise his allegiance to his beliefs and morals. His

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Culture Stereotypes Essay

The world today is a mul? cultural society. A globaliza? on has brought a greater diversity to communi? es. Although we live in post-modern world, there are s? ll believes, which can carry narrow-minded character concerning members of some na? on. Culture stereotype is the way of categorizing people in to the group and assuming that everyone who has the same culture, religion, values and race would act the same way. Stereotypes are generaliza? ons based primarily on membership in that group without excep? on. Culture stereotyping usually refers to nega? ve assump? ons because it is unjust to individuals who vary from others in the same group or culture. Whenever we talk about people from di&erent culture, we usually categorize people into a group of ac? ons and behaviors we assume that they would act in the same way. Stereotypes are rigid and ‘xed. Some? mes when the stereotype develops into a rigid a(tude and when people’s belief based on wrong assump? ons, prejudice occurs. So now what can we do to resolve cultural con? ict? First of all, you have to be aware of culture sensi? vi? es and diversi? es. Do not judge people from other cultures from their behaviors or appearances, because you do not know what lies beneath those behaviors. Moreover, you should try to be open and willing to accept others’ di&erences as much as possible when communica? ng with people form di&erent cultures. How to improve communica? on among di&erent cultures? Firstly, learn about other cultures. Learning about other cultures, only a basic level would make a big di&erence with you traveling to that country or have a conversa? on with others. You will have a sense what to do or should not do. Secondly, understand the poten? al problem that might occurs from cultural di&erences. Culture is an essen? al part of con? ict, so please bare in mind that your words or ac? on might found o&ensive in other cultures. Moreover, learn the nonverbal language used by other cultures to avoid cultural misunderstandings. Similar to ‘rst point, learning about nonverbal language used by other cultures would help you to avoid cultural con? icts. Thirdly, recognize the di&erent percep? ons about ? me. Europeans and Americans seem to run and rush all the ? me, while in Asian culture, people take things slow. People wander; they spend hours at a table talking about their family and friends. To sum up, it`s very important to overcome stereotypes and prejudices about representa? ves of foreign na? on, because only this way we can succeed mutual understanding and peace.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Education System Essay

The education system of India is very old. It has started from the ancient times. The Vedas, puranas, ayurveda, yoga represent some forms of education. There are evidences of imparting formal education in ancient India under the Gurukul system. Under the Gurukul system, young boys who were passing through the Brahmacharya stage of life had to stay at the Guru or the teacher’s home and complete their education. Earlier women and people of lower castes didn’t have a right to educate themselves. But Jainism, Buddhism and Sufi movements had some liberating effects. The Britishers can be credited for bringing a revolution in the Indian education system because it is the English language and the reformation movements of the 19th century that had the most liberating effect in pre-independent India. India Education Present Condition  After independence, making education available to all had become a priority for the government. As discrimination on the basis of caste and gender has been a major impediment in the healthy development of the Indian society, they have been made unlawful by the Indian constitution. The 86th constitutional amendment has also made elementary education a fundamental right for the children between the age group- 6 to 14. According to the 2001 census, Total literacy rate – 65.38%. The female literacy rate – 54.16%. Only 59.4% of rural population is literate as against 80.3% urban population according to the 2001 census. Read more:

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The Moundbuilder Myth Debunked

The Moundbuilder Myth Debunked The Moundbuilder myth is a story believed, wholeheartedly, by Euroamericans in North America well into the last decades of the 19th and even into the 20th century. The central myth was that indigenous people who lived in what is today the United States were incapable of engineering of the thousands of prehistoric earthworks found by the newcomers and must have been built by some other race of people. That myth served as justification for the plan to exterminate Native Americans and take their property. It was debunked in the late 19th century. Key Takeaways: Moundbuilder Myth The Moundbuilder Myth was created in the mid-19th century to explain a disconnect within the thought processes of Euroamerican settlers.  The settlers appreciated the thousands of mounds on their new properties, but could not bear to credit mound construction to the Native American people they were displacing.  The myth credited the mounds to a fictional race of beings which had been driven out by the Native American residents.  The Moundbuilder Myth was disproven in the late 1880s.  Many thousands of earthen mounds were purposefully destroyed after the myth was dispelled. Early Explorations and the Mound Builders The earliest expeditions of Europeans into the Americas were by the Spanish who found living, vigorous and advanced civilizations- the Inca, the Aztecs, the Maya all had versions of state societies. The Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto even found the true mound builders, when he visited the chiefdoms of the Mississippians running their sophisticated communities from Florida to the Mississippi River between 1539–1546. Circa 1540, Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto (c.1500–1542) and his men journey across America on one of their expeditions in search of treasure. Original Artwork: Painting by Frederic Remington. MPI / Stringer / Getty Images But the English who came to North America convinced themselves first that the people already inhabiting the land they were settling were literally descended from the Canaanites from Israel. As the European colonization moved westward, the newcomers continued to meet Native people some of whom were already devastated by diseases, and they began to find thousands of examples of massive earthworks- very tall mounds like Cahokias Monks Mound in Illinois, as well as mound groups, and mounds in various geometric shapes, spiral mounds, and bird and other animal effigies. The Great Serpent Mound in Adams County, Ohio, built and used by the Adena people between 800 BCE and 400 CE. This protected historical earthworks is nearly a quarter of a mile long and represents a giant snake holding an egg in its jaws. Photo by MPI/Getty Images A Myth is Born The earthworks encountered by the Europeans were a source of great fascination to the new settlers- but only after they convinced themselves that the mounds had to have been built by a superior race, and that couldnt be the Native Americans. Because the new Euroamerican settlers could not, or did not want to, believe that the mounds had been built by the Native American peoples they were displacing as fast as they could, some of them- including the scholarly community- began to formulate a theory of the lost race of mound builders. The moundbuilders were said to be a race of superior beings, perhaps one of the Lost Tribes of Israel, or ancestors of Mexicans, who were killed off by later people. Some amateur excavators of the mounds claimed that the skeletal remains in them were of very tall individuals, who certainly could not be Native Americans. Or so they thought. Restored Mississippian palisaded mound group at Aztalan State Park in Wisconsin, fancifully named for the ancient home town of the Aztecs. MattGush / iStock / Getty Images Plus It was never an official government policy that the engineering feats were made by someone other than the indigenous residents, but the theory did bolster arguments supporting the manifest destiny of European desires. Many of the earliest settlers of the midwest were at least initially proud of the earthworks on their properties and did much to preserve them. Debunking the Myth By the late 1870s, however, scholarly research led by Cyrus Thomas (1825–1910) of the Smithsonian Institution and Frederick Ward Putnam (1839–1915) of the Peabody Museum reported conclusive evidence that there was no physical difference between the people buried in the mounds and modern Native Americans. Subsequent DNA research has proven that time and again.  Scholars then and today recognized that the ancestors of modern Native Americans were responsible for all of the prehistoric mound constructions in North America. Unintended Consequences Members of the public were harder to convince, and if you read county histories into the 1950s, you will still see stories about the Lost Race of Moundbuilders. Scholars did their best to convince people that the Native Americans were the architects of the mounds, by giving lecture tours and publishing newspaper stories. That effort backfired. Unfortunately, once the myth of a Lost Race was dispelled, the settlers lost interest in the mounds, and many if not most of the thousands of mounds in the American midwest were destroyed as settlers simply plowed away the evidence that a civilized, intelligent and capable people had been driven from their rightful lands. Selected Sources Clark, Mallam. R. The Mound Builders:  An American Myth. Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 23 (1976): 145–75. Print.Denevan, William M. The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 82.3 (1992): 369–85. Print.Mann, Rob. Intruding on the Past: The Reuse of Ancient Earthen Mounds by Native Americans. Southeastern Archaeology 24.1 (2005): 1–10. Print.McGuire, Randall H. Archeology and the First Americans. American Anthropologist 94.4 (1992): 816–36. Print.Peet, Stephen D. Comparison of the Effigy Builders with the Modern Indians. American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal 17 (1895): 19–43. Print.Trigger, Bruce G. Archaeology and the Image of the American Indian. American Antiquity 45.4 (1980): 662–76. Print.Watkins, Joe. Indigenous Archaeology: American Indian Values and Scientific Practice. Lanham, MD: Alta Mira Press, 2000. Print.Wymer, Dee Anne. On the Edge of the Secular and the Sacred: Hopewell Mound-Builder Archaeology in Context. Antiquity 90.350 (2016): 532–34. Print.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Free Essays on Mind

Other Minds Can I know what another person is thinking or feeling? If so, how? by Tom Nuttall (tutor: Anthony Rudd) The problem of Other Minds is a true philosophical enigma. It is apt to strike children with no philosophical education whatsoever, yet remains intractable to many academics. Broadly speaking, the problem can be divided into three questions. Firstly, how do I come to believe that there are minds in the world other than my own? Secondly, how can I justify my belief that there are minds in the world other than my own? Thirdly, what can I state about the mental states of minds other than my own?. The question we are dealing with here falls largely into the third category, although of course issues relating to the other two will also be involved. Firstly, it is imperative to assert that, in looking for ‘knowledge’, we are not aiming for logical certainties - we are not aiming to show that any propositions about other minds can be demonstrated with absolute certainty equivalent to that of mathematical truths. Philosophy ever since Descartes has tended to be defined by scepticism: either it aims to produce sceptical theories or it aims to refute them. And sceptics tend towards extremity in their doubts. It must be stated here and now that there are not, and never can be, any theories that prove demonstratively that other minds exist, or that I know others’ mental states. This is not what should be aimed at in attempting to solve the problem. As Austin puts it "To suppose that the question ‘How do I know that Tom is angry?’ is meant to mean ‘How do I introspect Tom’s feelings?’ is simply barking up the wrong gum-tree." Most philosophers agree that their theories only bestow a greater or lesser amount of probability onto statements about other minds (although there are exceptions, e.g. Peter Strawson’s attempt to argue transcendentally for the existence of other minds thro... Free Essays on Mind Free Essays on Mind Other Minds Can I know what another person is thinking or feeling? If so, how? by Tom Nuttall (tutor: Anthony Rudd) The problem of Other Minds is a true philosophical enigma. It is apt to strike children with no philosophical education whatsoever, yet remains intractable to many academics. Broadly speaking, the problem can be divided into three questions. Firstly, how do I come to believe that there are minds in the world other than my own? Secondly, how can I justify my belief that there are minds in the world other than my own? Thirdly, what can I state about the mental states of minds other than my own?. The question we are dealing with here falls largely into the third category, although of course issues relating to the other two will also be involved. Firstly, it is imperative to assert that, in looking for ‘knowledge’, we are not aiming for logical certainties - we are not aiming to show that any propositions about other minds can be demonstrated with absolute certainty equivalent to that of mathematical truths. Philosophy ever since Descartes has tended to be defined by scepticism: either it aims to produce sceptical theories or it aims to refute them. And sceptics tend towards extremity in their doubts. It must be stated here and now that there are not, and never can be, any theories that prove demonstratively that other minds exist, or that I know others’ mental states. This is not what should be aimed at in attempting to solve the problem. As Austin puts it "To suppose that the question ‘How do I know that Tom is angry?’ is meant to mean ‘How do I introspect Tom’s feelings?’ is simply barking up the wrong gum-tree." Most philosophers agree that their theories only bestow a greater or lesser amount of probability onto statements about other minds (although there are exceptions, e.g. Peter Strawson’s attempt to argue transcendentally for the existence of other minds thro...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Android vs Apple

Both operating systems now dominate the smartphone market, Apple and android. It all began when Google launched its Android system six years ago. But that approach is quite different. Google is not software to allow mobile phone manufacturers to modify or adjust software for free, it just manufactures software. Google believes that by offering free services, you can increase advertising on mobile phones and Google that are more friendly to the Internet in the long run. Since Android is the world's most popular operating system that many smartphone users love, I believe this strategy has been successful. iPhone and Android phone are the latest mobile phone needs. But when Apple made Iphone 5, they guaranteed that the phone can be used up to 3 days. Papers on Iphone and Android essays can only be accessed from anti-essay. Apple Vs Android: S is also one of the top smartphones next to the Apples IPhone. Writing comparison paper on 28th March 2015: The paper statement used by Iphone and Galaxy Smartphone Apple Inc. is your first sentence, attracting the Galaxy series running on the Android system, of cell phones such as iPhones It became a major manufacturer. This system welcomes Google's competition between Google and Android Apple iOS is one of the most notable wars on the mobile gadget platform. The Google Android platform is a discussion paper dated 18th September 2016. It is an essay on Android and iOS. Customization is different from Android IOS used by Apple. Paper type: chapter of paper / paper. This article on October 11, 2014 will explain the main reasons why you need to use Android devices instead of Apple gadgets. Apple phone The iPhone and Android (or iOS and Android, or more precisely) was the best technical competitor in 10 years. In the past, the desktop war between Apple and Microsoft, Apple and IBM was halted. Both sides recorded some wonderful sales. Samsung is a leading manufacturer of Android mobile phones, which will post a sales volume of 385 .5 million units in 2016 and Huawei, Xiaomi etc will be adding more products, but Apple has 215 million units It is second in mobile phone. Profit: nearly 80% of the world smartphone's profit Analysts and bloggers are trying to position iPhone vs.. The history of the PC market is not an indication of this paper. Apple succeeds in Android's success, but since January 1, 2012 the success of innovation (to the short history of Apple's acquisition), Google released Android phone very soon, vertical method (software): Operating system and Microsoft. Apple February 19, 2016 FBI hopes Apple will help access to the iPhone 5C (due to its value this is not unique to the iPhone: my Android like my iPhone Mobile, September 2014 With the launch of iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus, Apple appeared on April 7, 2011. Friend: I like Google Friend Android vs. Android Speaking of closed system Has issued a statement on operating system developers and has not announced statements about developers.

Friday, October 18, 2019

In may 2010 the people of britain elected a new government, which was Essay

In may 2010 the people of britain elected a new government, which was a historic moment in British politics. Explain what has ch - Essay Example After one year of power people have now begun to weigh the change in terms of their aspirations and ambitions materialized. Though it might be considered a little early to evaluate the change, nonetheless the change is yet not as evident as masses desired it to be. Specially, the change in student fee structure has disappointed a large majority of public. The raise was fully backed by the Conservatives and partially by the Liberal Democrat MPs. The main idea is to give universities more financial liberty to face the challenges of the technological advancements and other changes at global level and thereby improve the quality of education. As the Prime Minister David Cameron has said in an interview, â€Å"We won't go back. Look, even if we wanted to, we shouldn't go back to the idea that university is free.† (Guardian, 2010) Thought the intend is good behind the change in fee structure but it is not gradual as most of the critics have pointed out. The maximum allowable annual fee is now ?9,000 which is too much for many poor students. The universities have shown there intend to increase the fees to a maximum allowable limit which can adversely affect the education system. The liberty provided by the government to these universities is said to be more than the needful.

Pop Art and Harlem Renaissance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Pop Art and Harlem Renaissance - Essay Example Harlem Renaissance was characterized by an overt racial pride that was representing the New Negro idea, who believed through production and intellect of music, art, and literature could challenge the pervading stereotypes and racism to foster socialist or progressive politics, social, and racial integration (Wintz, 2007). The movement sought to break free of bourgeois shame and Victorian moral values about lives’ aspects that may be seen by the whites as reinforcing racist beliefs. It should be noted that a specific school of thought did not dominate the Harlem Renaissance; instead, it was characterized by intense debate that laid the groundwork for subsequent African American art. It attracted a remarkable concentration of talent and intellect and served as an inspiration of cultural awakening. Pop Art Renaissance happened in the mid twentieth century, in the late 1950s in the United States and earlier on in the mid-1950s in Britain. The history of pop art in the Great Britai n and North America developed differently. In the Great Britain, its origin can be traced in the post-war period and employed parody and irony. It was more academic focusing on the dynamic and paradoxically imagery of the American Popular culture as manipulative, powerful symbolic devices that was not only improving society’s prosperity, but also affected patterns of life (Wilkins and Zaczek, 2005). The precursor to the pop art Renaissance in Britain was the formation of the Independent Group in 1952 in London. This group was a gathering of young architects, critics, painters, writers, and sculptors who were challenging modernist approaches that were prevailing to culture and traditional fine art views. The discussions of this group revolved around the

You can choose the topic you want Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

You can choose the topic you want - Essay Example stence is all about hope and since the dawn of human civilization on this planet, almost all the major religions of the world have either believed in or alluded to rebirth in one form or other. The early Christians do believed in rebirth and life after death and they carried on with this belief until the Middle Ages. The records of many important and influential church fathers like Origen establish beyond doubt that they believed in rebirth and reincarnation. Yet, by the advent of Renaissance, the Christianity dropped the beliefs about reincarnation from its doctrines and rituals. However, two major world religions that are Hinduism and Buddhism regard rebirth and reincarnation to be an essential part of their creed. Though there are many similarities between the Hindu and Buddhist theologies about rebirth, yet there also exist many marked differences between the way the two religions tend to elaborate on the concept and mechanism of rebirth. The fundamental similarity between the Hinduism and the Buddhist beliefs about life after death is that both of them believe in reincarnation or rebirth. Both Hinduism and Buddhism believe that death is not the end of life, but the extension of life into a second life that is a life after death. Thus, there exists nothing as death and the human beings continue to live after death by taking a second birth after death as some other personality, individual or life form. The Hindus believe that eventual goal of the human existence is to merge with the Brahma or the Supreme Being or God and before the attainment of this state; the human beings continue to pass on from one birth to other, from one state of existence to other and experience many births and deaths. As per Hinduism, every individual has to bear with countless and many experiences and has to live many lives before becoming one with the Divine. According to Buddhism, the eventual goal of human consciousness to attain Nirvana o r enlightenment and on its way to Nirvana,

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Essay problem-solution Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Problem-solution - Essay Example Global warming is led to by many causes. The rise in the carbon dioxide content is the most principle cause for this phenomenon. Industrialization is one of the most important reasons for carbon dioxide release into the atmosphere. The release of carbon dioxide from the fossil fuels that are used in these industries leads to an increase in the carbon dioxide levels in the air. Automobiles are another source of the emission of carbon dioxide in the air. The trees work as a shield against the issue of global warming as they take in the carbon dioxide from the air and release in return. Deforestation for industrialization and forest fires are thus another major cause of global warming as they lead to a reduction in the number of trees and thus this promotes the warming phenomenon of Earth. Global warming has brought with it many disastrous effects on the atmosphere and the environment. The warming results in an increase in the overall temperature of the world. This promotes the melting of the glaciers which are the ice reserves which in turn leads to an increase in the level of water in the rivers and the seas. A rise in the overall water level can be cause of floods and many small islands can be destroyed from the world map owing to this. Furthermore, floods are also a cause of the spread of diseases. Heat waves are also generated owing to the warming of the earth. These heat waves can be a reason of many deaths as well. Thus, global warming provides for many damaging results for the earth’s atmosphere as well as for mankind. The issue of global warming should be taken seriously and steps should be taken on the global level to prevent further deterioration. The emission of greenhouse gases should be controlled. Alternative fuels should be introduced for the motor vehicles to prevent the emission of gases. The usage of public transport should be promoted to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide. Guidelines for industries should also be laid down which may

Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Assignment Example This means that the test subjects wont necessarily be representative of the population. Random assignment means assigning test subjects to different treatments in the study. Randomization is the best way of making sure that the necessary control in the study is present. They are related to both internal and external validities as they increase both. Internal validity is the validity of the effect discovered in the study, and external validity is the validity in which the cause-effect relationship holds up when measurements are changed. The randomization increases both validities. a. Threats to the validity of the research about the two school groups include the fact that the number of students in each group isnt specified, and if it isnt above 30- the research isnt valid since at least 30 test subjects are needed to conduct a test on statistical hypotheses (even more according to different, more rigid approaches). A way to increase the external validity in this subject is to increase the number of test subjects in each group as much as possible, so that the results are as accurate and representative as possible, and also in order for them to be at least over 30, which is the agreed upon number of test subjects needed in a group in order to be able to test the validity of hypotheses. b. The threat to the validity of the study is mainly that the teacher had a pretest and a posttest for classes A and B while only having the posttest for classes C and D. it is impossible to deduce from this that the former classes are superior to the latter ones because of the introduction of the new materials and methods. She should have done both tests on all classes. Furthermore, there is a need to control possible intervening variables to make sure that there is a statistical link between these new materials and methods to the score achieved in the post test (the link can be a correlation and then it wouldnt be legitimate

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Business system analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Business system analysis - Essay Example ructure is created to visually demonstrate the clients what their needs can seem similar to when they are applied into a completed system (Sommerville, 2009). Evolutionary prototyping method is a software development lifecycle model in which software prototype developed for illustration and requirements explanation. There are four main phases in Evolutionary prototyping model: (SoftDevTeam) Evolutionary Prototyping is also recognized as breadboard prototyping. Evolutionary Prototyping is moderately dissimilar from Throwaway Prototyping. The major objective to utilize Evolutionary Prototyping is to develop an extremely strong prototype in a prearranged way and continuously process it. The cause intended for this is that the Evolutionary prototype, at what time developed, shapes the compassion of the novel system, as well as the developments and additional requirements will be developed (Hanna Kulas, 2009). A class diagram graphically demonstrates classes and subclasses in a system(Shelly, Cashman and Vermaat). A class diagram is a diagram that demonstrates the associations as well as source code dependability amongst classes in the UML or Unified Modeling Language (Ambler, 2009). A class outlines the techniques and variables in an object that is a precise body in a plan or the component of code instead of that entity. The Class diagrams are practical in the entire shapes of OOP or object-oriented programming. The idea is a number of years mature on the other hand have been advanced like object-oriented programming modeling paradigms have developed (Searchsoa, 2009). Below is an example of Class diagram: A use case is a task that an actor who interacts with an information system can carry out(Shelly, Cashman and Vermaat). A Use case is intended to elucidate a series of events that offer something of quantifiable worth to an actor as well as is drawn like a horizontal ellipse (Ambler, UML 2 Use Case Diagrams, 2009). In software engineering, the utilization of a

Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Assignment Example This means that the test subjects wont necessarily be representative of the population. Random assignment means assigning test subjects to different treatments in the study. Randomization is the best way of making sure that the necessary control in the study is present. They are related to both internal and external validities as they increase both. Internal validity is the validity of the effect discovered in the study, and external validity is the validity in which the cause-effect relationship holds up when measurements are changed. The randomization increases both validities. a. Threats to the validity of the research about the two school groups include the fact that the number of students in each group isnt specified, and if it isnt above 30- the research isnt valid since at least 30 test subjects are needed to conduct a test on statistical hypotheses (even more according to different, more rigid approaches). A way to increase the external validity in this subject is to increase the number of test subjects in each group as much as possible, so that the results are as accurate and representative as possible, and also in order for them to be at least over 30, which is the agreed upon number of test subjects needed in a group in order to be able to test the validity of hypotheses. b. The threat to the validity of the study is mainly that the teacher had a pretest and a posttest for classes A and B while only having the posttest for classes C and D. it is impossible to deduce from this that the former classes are superior to the latter ones because of the introduction of the new materials and methods. She should have done both tests on all classes. Furthermore, there is a need to control possible intervening variables to make sure that there is a statistical link between these new materials and methods to the score achieved in the post test (the link can be a correlation and then it wouldnt be legitimate

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Platos The Allegory of the Cave Essay Example for Free

Platos The Allegory of the Cave Essay Even in this abridged version, Platos fable The Allegory of the Cave reflects the vast wisdom of Plato, his teacher and the philosophers of his time. The storys meaning and lessons are as significant today as they were then, and its inclusion in The Republic is well earned. The intentions of Plato in sharing this story seem to be fairly simple. As with all of the works that he included in The Republic, he is attempting to convey a message that relates to government and leadership. I also believe that this story conveys a message to, not just leaders, but people in general. The message that is expressed by this work is that, A lie told often enough becomes the truth.(-Lenin), and when someone is convinced of this lie, the liar can control them. This fable also tells us how, what some people believe to be true may be in fact the exact opposite to truth, and that people must always be open minded, just in case their beliefs are wrong. In the story, the prisoners are convinced that the shadows they see are alive, real and able to speak to them. In fact, however, they are being lied to by puppeteers. Because they have seen this lie so many times, and because it is all that they have seen, for them, it has become the truth. As such, the puppeteers are able to control their lives, by speaking to these prisoners as the shadows. This lesson becomes quite relevant to todays society. It is portrayed in works such as The Matrix and Animal Farm, where the characters are lied to, but because they hear the lie so often, they perceive it as truth. In reality, we find this message to also be evident in the forms of such things as propaganda, in which a message is repeated by so many times, that each person hears a relay from numerous sources. Eventually, because of the numerous sources and repetition of the message, it seems to them to become normal to hear and hence believable. This of course relates to our leaders and government. If such administrations were to use methods like propaganda to convince the public that, for example, the stock market was free trade when in fact it was government controlled, then the government would be able to effectively control the flow of money, and hence peoples lives, without anyone being the wiser. In the end, the ultimate message is that people are able to use lies to exploit others and so we must all be wary. This then relates to the second message conveyed by the work. The piece tells us that the prisoners have extreme difficulty in accepting the reality that the shadows they had seen werent real and how these prisoners would rather return to the shadows over staying in the light. At the end of the story, when a prisoner who has seen the truth returns to tell others, it is implied and can be seen from the reactions of the freed prisoners, that those who still believe in the shadows would prefer to keep doing so. These parts of the story bring to mind two intertwined messages. The first is that, in general, all people have their own views and beliefs on life, and they are happier living under whatever delusions they have convinced themselves of, rather than considering contradictory beliefs. Essentially, for most people ignorance is bliss. Just like the prisoners who are freed from the cave and forced to see the real world, people fear the knowledge of something that might interfere or contradict the beliefs they rely upon. For the most part, they would much rather go on not knowing, and turn from the light and long to return to the shadows. The second seems to be a warning to do the exact opposite of what has been stated above. The fact that the characters in the story, whose views are wrong, are prisoners is very symbolic. Not only are these people prisoners of the puppeteers, they are also prisoners of their own beliefs. Because they do not want to find out about what is real, they are condemned to believe in what is not. The piece warns us that we must not blindly follow our own beliefs, without continually viewing and considering other views that may be true as well. If we do not always consider the ideas of others, we will essentially be trapped by our own adamant conviction in what we think is real. This lesson has become evident in countless cases throughout history, where beliefs about a geocentric universe, a flat earth, etc. were all held to e true and the introduction of the ideas we hold as true today was ridiculed and deemed ludicrous. Today, we believe that the galaxy is heliocentric and that the world is round, but we must always, at some point, question that which believe in. Through this simple story, we are able to see a seldom-realized aspect of human nature, in that many of us blindly follow what we are told, and consequently believe. We can relate deeply to the fable, because, like the prisoners, we as a whole prefer to not know some truths, believe some lies, and have difficulty accepting some realities. By the end of the work, we are left with new thoughts about the reality of our beliefs and faith and are encouraged to re-evaluate our paradigms.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Comparative in-vitro Quality Evaluation of Cephalexin

Comparative in-vitro Quality Evaluation of Cephalexin A COMPARATIVE IN-VITRO QUALITY EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT BRANDS OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE CEPHALEXIN IN KARACHI (PAKISTAN) SHAHBAZ AHMED NOOR Abstract: Approximately 600 generic drug applications (ANDAs) approved each year, 65 % of prescriptions are for generic indication from oncology to insomnia without repeating clinical trials .Every generic molecule references a previously approved drug. Cephalexin Monohydrates was first sold by Eli Lilly in 1972. The availability of many brands of cephalexin 500 mg capsules in Pakistan market today place healthcare providers in a difficult situation of choice of a suitable brand or alternate use possibility .The objectives of this study was to carry out pharmaceutical equivalence studies on different brands of cephalexin 500mg capsules available in local market of Karachi. The invitro parameters include all pharmacopeia and non-pharmacopeia tests that were dissolution rate( in 0.1 N Hydrochloric Acid at 37 à ¢Ã‚ Ã‚ °C ) ,weight uniformity , disintegration time , moisture content ( with the help of suitable Karl Fischer Titrator ) , appearance (observed physically before and after opening of the shell) , Identification ( compare manually retention time in HPLC chromatogram of sample with chromatogram of reference standard ) and HPLC assay of cephalexin (as describe below based on HPLC assay method AM1172) were also analyzed. Along with the inappropriate use of antimicrobials drugs, substandard antibiotic medicines may also contribute in resistance development against susceptible organism. The study will be helpful to evaluate the efficacy and justification of generic substitution of cephalexin 500 mg capsule brands in Karachi (Pakistan) INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic, being the wonder drugs, are widely prescribed in the developing countries. In reality, 25 to 40 % prescriptions contain one or more antibiotic (Public Sector studies, 1990-1993) Antibiotic resistance can be developed through its wide and inappropriate use without following any standard guidelines. This Alarming situation has been addressed in several scientific journals (Glass et al.,1980; Farrar , 1985; Saha et al., 2003;Lina et al.,2007;Hassan et al.,2009) Post –marketing surveillance include complete procedures undertaken to obtain more data and information about a product after it had been granted marketing authorization and made available for public use, this data used for product improvement ,development standard and regulations. Regulatory agencies rely on limited information get from clinical trials and from scientific literature as guide to granting to marketing authorization of medicine for public use. Post-marketing surveillance of approved dosage forms is to assess the quality, effectiveness and safe use of medicine to large population. To Assess the standard of a product, invitro dissolution test is widely used because , for any solid dosage forms, gastrointestinal absorption first requires dissolution of the tablet or capsules that librates the drug into solution (Goodman Gilman`s –The Pharmacology basis of Therapeutics,2006) The dissolution characteristics of a drug from the dosage form depend on many factors including its formulation and manufacturing process (Augsburger et al., 1983). Cephalexin Chemically, Cephalexin is {(6R, 7R)-7-[(R)-2-Amino-2-Phenylacetamido]-3-Methyl-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo [4.2.0] oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid monohydrate} is a first generation cephalosporins for oral administration which is bactericidal, and mainly used in the treatment of various bacterial infections caused by gram +ve and gram -ve microorganisms. .( Ralph R 1970).Excellent oral absorption and lack of serum binding of cephalexin compensates significantly for the lower in vitro activity.( Warren E. Wick 1967). Antibacterial Spectrum of Cephalexin: Cephalexin appears to be a highly effective antibiotic. It possesses the qualities of rapid oral absorption, production of high drug levels in the blood and urine, and near absence of side effects. It is effective against infections due to gram-positive cocci infections, with the exception of Enterococcus, and for most infections caused by E. coli and Klebsiella. It is useful in the treatment of a wide variety of infections in infants and children, and particularly valuable with susceptible infections in patients who do not require parenteral antimicrobial therapy. (R.C. Rudoy, M.D.1977) The first-generation cephalosporins, epitomized by cephalothin and cefazolin, have good activity against gram-positive bacteria and relatively modest activity against gram-negative microorganisms. Most gram-positive cocci (with the exception of enterococci, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and S. epidermidis) are susceptible. Most oral cavity anaerobes are sensitive, but the B. fragilis group is resistant. Activity against Moraxella catarrhalis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis is good (Goodman Gilman`s –The Pharmacology basis of Therapeutics,2006) Literature Survey: A ) Helio in 2007 In this study, they observed the antibacterial spectrum of the orally prescribe cephalosporin (cefaclor, cefdinir, cefpodoxime, cefprozil, cefuroxime axetil, cephalexin) and amoxicillin/clavulanate, as these drugs were widely prescribed for community acquired respiratory tract infections. Narrowest zone was of Cefaclor and Cephalexin against evaluated pathogens. Overall, the 3rd Generation of cephalosporin is more useful in respiratory tracts and other infections when administered orally, as compared with older generation or amoxicillin alone. B ) Chalermporn in 2005 ,they studied for rapid and sensitive identification of cephalosporins drugs such as cefoxitin , cefazolin , cephalexin, cefadroxil , cefaclor and cefoperazone, a flow injection (FI) method was used. This method was applied successfully for the identification of cefoxitin, cefazolin, cephalexin, cefadroxil , cefaclor and cefoperazone. The method was successfully applicable for the identification of cefoxitin ,cefazolin , cephalexin and cefadroxil in the pharmaceutical formulation with a sample throughput of 90h−1. C ) Rist in 2002, they studied on Oral Cephalexin compared with mupirocin calcium cream with respect to safety and efficacy in secondarily infected eczema treatment. The adverse effect most common , they observed was diarrhea and nausea, effective clinical dose of mupirocin cream was apply three times daily as compared to cephalexin orally four times daily in secondarily infected eczma as topical regimen was preferred by the patient that enhance patient compliance. D ) Lennart Venemalm in 2001, worked for the diagnosis of allergy against ÃŽ ²-lactams, prazinone-polylysine conjugate was able to bind with antibodies IgE in sera from patient with suspected allergy to cephalosporin’s. This information may be used for diagnosis of allergy against ÃŽ ²-lactams. E ) Yagnesh P. Patel in 1998 They studied, modern data on the isocratic assay of five antimicrobial drugs ,five different assay were performed to one single report, antibiotic used in this study were cephalexin and cefaclor (cephalosporin’s), isoniazid and pyrazinamide (anti-tubercular drugs) and minocycline (tetracycline series) . Overall they concluded that any one of the drug could be used as internal standard for other four drugs. F ) Godfried Owusu-Ababio in 1995 Sustained release of cephalexin ciprofloxacin, was evaluated in open chemostat sytem. They concluded that chemostat system is convenient for sustained release drug testing as a function of formulation parameter. G ) Anne H. in 1992 In this study, the Cefaclor uptake was observed concluded that it was sodium-independent, but proton-dependent and also the energy dependent , dipeptides inhibited uptake of ÃŽ ²-lactam antibiotic but amino acid had no effect on uptake , the overall data from this study concluded that a single proton-dependent dipeptide transport carrier support the orally absorbed antibiotic uptake into Caco-2 cell shows correlation for the use of Caco-2 cell for cellular model of the intestinal proton-dependent dipeptides transporters for study purpose. H ) R. Wise in 1991 Cefibuten, invitro activity was studied against 572 bacterial strain and was compared with orally administered ÃŽ ²-lactams. Cefibuten being more active against Enterobacteriaceae. There was less activity of cefibuten cefexime against Staphylococci and reduce activity against streptococcus pneumonia. I ) Luis J in 1982 They studied, Acid degradation of cephalexin in presence of formaldehyde, produce 2-Hydroxy-3-phenyl-6-methylpyrazine.In 5M HCL this product gives well defined reduction wavelength with half wave potential of -0.45 vs. SCE. The wave was diffusion –controlled irreversible, linear relation with the cephalexin conc. was shown with diffusion current and cephalexin in plasma can be determined through it. J ) Ralph R in 1970 They performed to detect various crystal forms of compounds, the employment of solubility versus solvent composition diagram. This appears to be a convenient sensitive method for detecting new crystalline phase. Aim of Project: The objective of this study is to carry out pharmaceutical equivalence studies on different brands of cephalexin 500mg capsules available in local market of Karachi. The invitro parameters include all pharmacopeia and non-pharmacopeia tests that are dissolution rate, weight uniformity, disintegration time, moisture content, appearance, Identification and HPLC assay of cephalexin will also be analyzed. The susceptibility test of drug will also be evaluate by ICLS ( Formerly NCCLS ) Reference Disk Diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method against different clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (03), E. coli (03), Klebsiella pneumonia (03), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (02), Importance of study: This is a growing concern that if a health care provider, providing the substitute of the generic is also the Bioequivalent. For the health care providers to use these brands interchangeable, the bioequivalence of these brands have to be ascertained, this mean that there should be continued post marketing monitoring of the medicines. EXPERIMENT: TESTING PROCEDURE: Test # 1: Cephalexin Monohydrate (As base): Procedure: Perform HPLC assay of Cephalexin as describe below based on HPLC assay method AM1172. Test # 2: Identification: Procedure: Compare manually retention time in HPLC chromatograms of sample with chromatograms of reference standards. Test # 3: Moisture Content: Procedure: Three times separately the moisture content in the powder of the product with the help of suitable Karl Fischer Titrator will be determine and then calculate their mean. Test # 4: Appearance: Procedure: From the 20 capsules take 10 capsules and observe physically before and after opening of the shells. Test # 5: Weight Variation: From 20 capsules take 10 random capsules from composite sample and note individual weight of filled capsules. Calculate their average, minimum, maximum and COV%. Test # 6: Disintegration: Procedure: Prepare a 0.6% v/v solution of HCl (Add carefully 16.2ml of 37% HCl into 500ml of distilled water and then make the solution up to 1000ml with distilled water) and fill the vessel of a suitable disintegration test apparatus with this solution up to recommended height. Maintain the temperature between 35  °C and 39  °C. Place 1 capsule in each of the 6 tubes of the basket and run the equipment. Start the stopwatch and note the time when all capsules are disintegrated. If 1 or 2 capsules fail to disintegrate, repeat the test on 12 additional capsules. The requirements of the test are met if not less than 16 of the 18 capsules tested have disintegrated. Test # 7: Dissolution: Procedure: According to USP 2007 page # 1691. HPLC ASSAY OF CEPHALEXIN BASED ON HPLC ASSAY AM1172 (1.01) FOR CEPHALEXIN CAPSULES.500 MG / CAPSULES. I.PRINCIPLE: The sample is dissolved in water and the insoluble component removed by filtration. An aliquot of the filtrate is diluted with water and examined by reverse phase HPLC. II.APPARATUS 1. A suitable high performance liquid chromatographic system equipped with a variable Wavelength UV Detector. 2. A suitable analytical balance with tolerance of +/- 0.1 mg. 3. A suitable Ultrasonic bath. 4. Suitable Syringes such as BDà ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚ ¤, 10ml. 5. Analytical Column: 150 Ãâ€" 4.6 mm. i.d stainless steel column packed with S5 – ODS2 or equivalent column. 6. Pre-Column: 50 Ãâ€" 4.6 mm .i.d stainless steel column packed with 80 µm Porasil or equivalent is fitted between the pump and injector. 7 Detector Condition: 254nm range 0.5 aufs 8. Pump Condition: Flow rate 1.0 ml / minute. 9. Injection volume: 20 µl 10. pH meter. 11. Mobile phase: See reagents. B) REAGENTS Cephalexin analytical reference standard Methanol HPLC grade Acetonitrile HPLC grade 1- Hydroxybenzotriazole, Reagent grade. Triethylamine ( T.E.A ) analytical grade Orthophosphoric acid, analytical grade 1- Pentanesulfonic acid, sodium salt, Reagent grade (8) Mobile Phase: Dissolve 1g Pentanesulfonic acid sodium salt (Monohydrate) and 15ml of Triethylamine in 850 ml of distilled water, adjust the pH to 3.0 with Orthophosphoric acid. Add 50 ml of Methanol and 100 ml of Acetonitrile, Mix well and degas before use. Note: Caution should be taken when degassing the mobile phase to avoid evaporating the mixture. Internal standard solution: Dissolve 1 gm of 1- Hydroxybenzotriazole in 1000ml of mobile phase, mix well. C) PROCEDURE: This procedure contains the minimum recommended sample and standard Preparation for assays performed manually. Alternate weights and volumes may be substituted if necessary, as long as they are documented and provide nominally equivalent concentration of the analyte. PREPARATION OF REF. STANDARD SOLUTION Accurately weigh approximately 32, 40 and 48 mg of Cephalexin reference Standard in to into three separate 200ml volumetric flasks respectively, pipette 30 ml of the internal standard solution in to each flask and swirl to dissolve, Dilute to volume with distilled water and mix well. SAMPLE PREPARATION Take 20 random capsules from composite sample and note individual weight content of each capsule and determine average content weight of 20 capsules. Accurately weigh about 500 mg sample from composite sample of weight content of 20 capsules in 500ml volumetric flask and record the weight, add water to dissolve and make up the volume with water up to 500 ml mix well and filter. Take 20ml of above dilution in 100ml volumetric flask, add 30ml Internal Standard and then add water upto 100ml mix well and filter through 0.45 µm filter paper. d) CHROMATOGRAPHY Make 20 à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ­l injection of a standard to ensure the chromatography system complies with the system suitability criteria. The peak tailing should not be greater than 1.5, peak efficiency should be greater than 4000 plates. The resolution between the two peaks should be greater than 2.5. A typical chromatogram is attached. LIMIT OF CEPHALEXIN MONOHYDRATE CONTENT. CEPHALEXIN THEORY LABEL 500MG / CAPSULE 500MG / CAPSULE (As Cephalexin anhydrous) ( As Cephalexin anhydrous) Acceptance Limit: 475 – 525mg per capsule (95 – 105 %). Regulatory Limit: 462.5 – 550 mg per capsule (92.5 – 110 %) (British Pharmacopeia) REFERENCES: (Augsburger LL,Shangraw RF,Giannini RP, Shah VP, Prasad VK and Brown D (1983) Thiazides VIII: Dissolution Survey of marketed Hydrochlorothiazides tablets. J.Pharma Sci.,72(8):876-881) Anne H. Dantzig, Linda B. Tabas, Linda Bergin , Cefaclor uptake by the proton-dependent dipeptide transport carrier of human intestinal Caco-2 cells and comparison to cephalexin uptake Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Biomembranes, Volume 1112, Issue 2, 9 December 1992, Pages 167-173. Chalermporn Thongpoon, Boonsom Liawruangrath, Saisunee Liawruangrath, R. Alan Wheatley, Alan Townshend , Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of cephalosporins in pharmaceutical preparations using tris (2,2†²-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II)-potassium permanganate system , Analytica Chimica Acta, Volume 553, Issues 1-2, 30 November 2005, Pages 123-133. (Farar WE (1985) Antibiotic resistance in developing countries. The Journal of Infectious Diseases,152(6):1103-1106 ) (Glass RI, Huq I, Alim ARM and yunus M (1980) Emergence of multiply antibiotic-resistant vibro cholerae in Bangladesh . The Journal of Infection Disease , 142(6):939-942 ) (Goodman Gilman`s-The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (2006) 11th Edition, McGraw –Hill Medical Publishing Division, Digital Edition , Chapter1.) Godfried Owusu-Ababio, James A. Rogers, Hosmin Anwar , Method of evaluation of sustained release microsphere formulations using the open chemostat system. (Goodman Gilman`s-The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (2006) 11th Edition) (Hassan SMR, Hossain MM,Akhter R,Karim SMH, Haque S,Kamaluddin M and Ghani A (2009) Pattern of antibiotic use at the primary health care level of Bangladesh : Survey report -1.S.J. Pharm. Sci.2 (1) : 1-7) Helio S. Sader, Michael R. Jacobs, Thomas R. Fritsche, Review of the spectrum and potency of orally administered cephalosporins and amoxicillin/clavulanate, Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, Volume 57, Issue 3, Supplement 1, March 2007, Pages S5-S12. (Lina TT,Rahman SR, Gomes DJ(2007) Multi-antibiotic resistance mediated by plasmids and integrons in uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniea . Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology,24 (1):19-23) Lennart Venemalm , Pyrazinone conjugates as potential cephalosporin allergens Bioorganic Medicinal Chemistry Letters, Volume 11, Issue 14, 23 July 2001, Pages, 1869-1870. Luis J. Nuà ±ez-Vergara, J. A. Squella, M. M. Silva, Polarography of an acidic degradation product from cephalexin, Polarography of an acidic degradation product from cephalexin, Talanta, Volume 29, Issue 2, February 1982, Pages 137-138s. (Public Sector Drug use studies (1990-1993) International Network for Rational use of Drugs, Virginia,USA. ) Ralph R. Pfeiffer, K. S. Yang, Mary Ann Tucker, Crystal pseudopolymorphism of cephaloglycin and cephalexin, 19 June 1970, 10.1002/jps.2600591222 R.C.Rudoy,M.D. 1977, Cephalexin: Clinical and Laboratory Evaluation in Infants and Children , Clinical Pediatrics, Vol. 16, No. 7, 639-644 (1977) Rist T, Parish LC, Capin LR, Sulica V, Bushnell WD, Cupo MA, A comparison of the efficacy and safety of mupirocin cream and cephalexin in the treatment of secondarily infected eczema., 2002-01, Clin Exp Dermatol., 27(1):14-20 R.Wise, J. M. Andrews, J. P. Ashby, D. Thornber, Ceftibuten: A new orally absorbed cephalosporin in vitro activity against atrains from the United Kingdom ,Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, Volume 14, Issue 1, January-February 1991, Pages 45-52. (Saha SK Baqui AH, Darmstadt GL, Ruhulamin M, Hanif M,Arifeen SE, Santosham M,Oishi K, Nagatake T and Black RE (2003) Composition of carriage and invasive pneumococci among Bangladesh children:implication for treatment policy and vaccine formulation. Journal of Clinical Microbiology,41 (12):5582-5587) Warren E. Wick, Cephalexin, a New Orally Absorbed Cephalosporin Antibiotic , Appl Environ Microbiol. 1967 July; 15(4): 765-769). Yagnesh P. Patel, Nehal Shah, Indravadan C. Bhoir, M. Sundaresan, Simultaneous determination of five antibiotics by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 828, Issues 1-2, 18 December 1998, Pages 287-290. 1 | Page

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Limitation of International Trade Essay -- Economics

Limitation of International Trade One limitation of International Trade is "dumping." The Investopedia states that, "dumping in international trade occurs when one country exports a significant number of goods to another country at prices lower than in the domestic market (Investopedia. 2010)". For example, if a country decides to sell exported products cheaper than it does to its residents, the process is known as dumping. Romadia has to decide whether to impose tariffs, or set a quota on its import products. Dumping has created a probability that an adverse effect can happen because the result of the adverse effect is a shortage and increases in the prices of the products. Price increases lower the demand for the products. The country’s growth progress hindered because dumping is hurting those countries competing. Four Key Points The four points from the simulation are the supply and demand of the items and the cost factors that came with cheese, corn, watches, and DVD players; the balance of trade; opportunity cost; and dumping. This means that the supply and demand of the items and the cost factors were cheap to receive the items and have the items imported in than to make them locally. The balance of trade was discussed in the simulation. The balance of trade is the difference between what goods a country produces and how many goods the buys from overseas. For example, it was the difference between the value of the goods from Uthania and Alfazia exports and the value of the goods to Rodamia imports. The concept of opportunity cost provides for differences in comparative advantage among countries because it is the cost of passing up the next best choice when making a decision. Each county has a different mix of ... ... trade derives from being strong-minded against trade, not concerns based on ideological concerns. Works Cited Investopedia (c) 2010. Dumping. Retrieved from http// Retrieved on August 18, 2010 Lee. Dwight R. "Comparative Advantages Continued" The Freeman:Ideas on Liberty-October 1999. Retrieved from www.http\\www.CommonSenseeconomic/Reading/ComparativeAdvantage. Carbaugh, Robert, Wassink, Darwin. (1992). International dumping: final and intermediate products. Retrieved on August 19, 2010, from

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Tritt’s View of Young Goodman Brown :: Young Goodman Brown YGB

Tritt’s View of â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† In the article, â€Å"‘Young Goodman Brown’ and the Psychology of Projection†, Michael Tritt critically analyzes Nathaniel Hawthorne’s â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† to construct the process of how Hawthorne regards Goodman Brown’s behavior. Tritt examines the phenomenon of projection in psychology and believes that â€Å"Brown’s compulsive condemnation of others, along with his consistent denial of his own culpability, illustrates a classically defined case of projection† (116). He defines projection as an unconscious process when a person projects their own traits or desires onto other people, thus representing a false perception on whom the projection is made. Tritt perceives Goodman Brown’s withdrawal is from the persuasion that he has not fallen in with his devilish community, thus Goodman Brown projects his guilt to them in an attempt to escape a guilty subconscious. While Goodman Brown is in the forest, he locates his anxieties upon the community that he lives in. The experience in the forest actually depicts Goodman Brown’s own evils. Tritt refers to Goodman Brown snatching away a child being catechized by Goody Cloyse: If Brown truly conceives of himself as fallen, why would he snatch the child from one fiend to yield yet another, namely himself? Brown must believe himself untainted, or at least less tainted than various members of his community. (115) Michael Tritt believes that Brown’s anxieties inevitably stick within his subconscious forever. The anxieties suggest a psychological design with aspects of misperception and false perception to reveal a projection process. Tritt asserts that Goodman Brown’s evil is located in others, and Brown believes himself to be without guilt although his desires are still in his subconscious. It is a â€Å"vice-like grip with which such process is paralyzing, indeed terrifying† (Tritt 116). Undoubtedly, Michael Tritt uses a psychological strategy to critically analyze â€Å"Young Goodman Brown†. He carefully constructs his criticism through quotes from other critics and the short story. Sigmund Freud is also quoted because he theorized the projection process.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Cjs 240 week 2 checkpoint Essay

Juvenile delinquency along with the punishments associated with it seems to be one of the touchier subjects in today’s society. When it comes to juveniles, there are a number of different things that lead them to commit crimes. Things like the level of crime in their community, the bond they have with their parents, and even their economic status all lead juveniles to crime. In order for communities to even start to deter crime among juveniles, they need to start implementing a number of sources. One strategy will not just wipe out juvenile crime, you need a combination of many things to keep children away from crime. When it comes to general deterrence, my opinion is that it starts at home. While a child is growing up, his or her parents play a large role in their child’s concept and view of the world. They also help their children deal with feelings and issues that they come across. A positive up bringing will more than likely create a positive outcome, while a negative up bringing is more likely to produce a negative outcome. If a parent is into illegal behavior, the child is likely to follow in those footsteps. In terms of specific deterrence, this comes from people like social workers. Social workers are there to help the children in desperate need. They produce the positive influence that many from broken homes and poverty so desperately need and do not receive at home. With situational crime prevention, I believe this falls on the community as a whole. It is up to the community to make sure that there is safety. If a community is not safe, crime will breed like wild fire. With all the concepts on juvenile crime prevention, I believe that general deterrence is the one that is going to have the most effect. Parents have to determine the right amount of discipline. Too much discipline can cause your child to turn to illegal activity and the same goes for too little discipline. Too many times have we seen that parents want to be friends and not parents. Fix that problem, and you are one step closer to stop juvenile crime.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Why You Shouldn’t Drop Out of High School

Why Does High School Fail So Many? Majority of students decide to drop out because of not having the support they need from their parents or the fact that school is uninteresting to them. Once the students’ self-esteem goes down, the thought of them doing well in school is impossible. When their self-esteem drops the students may to think â€Å"why even attend school† or â€Å"what is the point of going to class†. Students find it hard to pay attention in class while learning when the material given out is boring.If students start to lose interest in the subject or topic they are learning about, it may lead them falling asleep in class, staring at the clock waiting until class is over, or disturbing another person in class to communicate about something else. Once a student has lost interest in school its highly expected students will not start to show up for class. High school students drop out of school because the teachers don’t make the class more inte resting.Students would go in to class and ones it starts the students would start starring into space thinking and using their imagination. Teachers sometimes don’t have that ability to try and get the students more motivated in what the whole class is about. Mr. Brownlee class is a perfect example of why students don’t learn and achieve in school. For my 10th grade geometry class, he would go in class give us a minute to sit down have a seat and then he starts lecturing.Students would go into class late because of how boring it would be, or not making it interesting. Math was a subject to teach students how to work the numbers and how to use them, but he never really made any sense to what he was saying or doing. For the rest of the semester it would just be ditching his class, playing around or slacking on his work because there was never homework. Mr. Bownlee ended up passing the kids without trying on their own and making their grade easier. In my opinion teachers should always make an attempt†¦

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Tun Dr Mahathir

This is a Malay name; the name â€Å"Mohamad† is a patronymic, not a family name, and the person should be referred to by the given name, â€Å"Mahathir†. Yang Amat Berbahagia Tun Mahathir bin Mohamad Tun Mahathir bin Mohamad (pronounced [ma? hatir bin mo? hamat? ]; born July 10, 1925) is a retired Malaysian political figure. He was the fourth Prime Minister of Malaysia. He held the post for 22 years from 1981 to 2003, making him Malaysia's longest-serving Prime Minister, and one of the longest-serving leaders in Asia. [1] During his term in office, he was credited for engineering Malaysia's rapid modernisation. 2] Mahathir is also known for his criticisms towards western and developed countries. [3] During his administration, he was considered to be one of Asia's most influential leaders. [4] Mahathir is also noted in the Western world as an outspoken critic of Western-style globalization. [5] Mahathir was born in Alor Setar, Kedah,[6] the youngest of nine children[7] of a schoolteacher and a housewife. His father, Mohamad Iskandar, was of Indian origin, being the son of a Malayalee Muslim (who migrated from Kerala) and a Malay mother, while Mahathir's own mother, Wan Tampawan, was Malay. 8] During World War II, he sold pisang goreng (banana fritters) and other snacks to supplement his family income during the Japanese occupation of Malaya. Mahathir attended a Malay vernacular school before continuing his education at the Sultan Abdul Hamid College in Alor Star. Mahathir then attended the King Edward VII Medical College (the predecessor of present-day National University of Singapore) in Singapore, where he edited a medical student magazine called The Cauldron; he also contributed to the The Straits Times newspaper pseudonymously under the nickname â€Å"Che Det†. Mahathir was also President of the Muslim Society in the college. [9] Upon graduation in 1953, Mahathir joined the then Malayan government service as a medical officer. He married Siti Hasmah Mohd Ali—a fellow doctor and former classmate in college—on 5 August 1956, and left government service in 1957 to set up his own private practice in Alor Star. Mahathir thrived in private practice, and allowed him to own by 1959 a Pontiac Catalina and employ an ethnic Chinese chauffeur (at the time, almost all chauffeurs in Malaysia were Malays, owing to the economic dominance of the ethnic Chinese). 10] Some critics have suggested this foreshadowed a later hallmark of Mahathir's politics, which focused on the â€Å"cultivation of such emblems of power†. [11] From his marriage with Tun Dr. Siti Hasmah binti Haji Mohamad Ali, they have seven children,[12] four sons and three daughters: Marina Mahathir, Mirzan Mahathir, Melinda Mahathir, Mokhzani Mahathir, Mukhriz Mahathir, Ma izura Mahathir and Mazhar Mahathir. [13] Both Mukhriz and Mokhzani [14] are involved in business as well as in politics while their eldest daughter Marina is a prominent local writer and AIDS activist. [15]